Triple P Positive Parenting is an effective, multilevel parenting program to prevent and
offer treatment for severe behavioral, emotional, and developmental problems in children
Improvements in the use of behavior modification in physical education have been made,
a. development of reliable observations for monitoring the behavior of physical
education teachers and students to provide usable information
b. increased acceptance by teachers and school administrators of behavioral teaching
skills as important components of teacher preparation programs;
c. increased acceptance of behavioral strategies to help physical educators manage a
variety of behavioral difficulties of students
Behavioral approaches to teaching -Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) uses behavior
modification principles to improve classroom instruction.
1. identifies the target behaviors or learning requirements for a course in the form of
study questions, such as the questions in each chapter in this book
2. requires students to study only a small amount of material before demonstrating
mastery, such as the amount of material in one or two chapters that might be
studied in a week or two
3. has frequent tests (at least once every week or two) in which students demonstrate
their knowledge of the answers to the study questions
4. has mastery criteria so that students must demonstrate mastery at a particular level
before going to the next level
5. is nonpunitive in that students are not penalized for failing to demonstrate mastery
on a test but simply restudy and try again
6. uses a number of student assistants called proctors to score tests immediately and
provide feedback to students concerning test performance
7. incorporates a "go-at-your-own-pace" feature in which students are allowed to
proceed through the course material at rates that suit their own particular abilities
and time demands
8. uses lectures primarily for motivation and demonstration rather than as a major
means of presenting new information
PSI courses can require a good deal of labor
rise of computer technology, some instructors have automated much of the PSI
procedure to make the approach more efficient. (computer-aided PSI =CAPS1)
CAPSI course receive much more substantive feedback than would be possible
in a course taught using traditional methods
A recent study shows that it enhances both learning and critical thinking
Two types of atypical developments that have received special attention from behavior
modifiers are intellectual disabilities and autism
American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD)
defines the term as it previously had defined mental retardation Intellectual disability: a disability characterized by significant limitations both in
intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and
practical adaptive skills.
This disability originates before age 18"
AAIDD defines limited intellectual functioning as an IQ score that is at least 2
standard deviations below the mean of an appropriate assessment instrument,
approximately 2.3% of the population.
1960s and 1970s revolutionized the education of persons with intellectual disabilities.
normalization advocates, who argued that persons with intellectual disabilities
should be helped to lead the most normative lives possible and that traditional large
institutions were simply not normative.
civil rights advocates and parents of persons with intellectual disabilities who
secured the legal right of individuals with severe disabilities to receive as normal an
education as possible.
behavior modifiers who created the technology that made it possible to dramatically
improve the behavior of persons with severe and profound intellectual disabilities.
In addition to autism there are two other pervasive developmental disorders listed in the
DSM-IV-TR include Asperger's syndrome and Pervasive Developmental Disorder--Not
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) refer to all 3 disorders
ASD is not officially defined in the DSM-IV-TR or in any other international
Children diagnosed with autism are likely to show some combination of impaired social
behavior impaired communication abnormal play behaviors, and repetitive self stimulatory
behaviors and also likely to show some behaviors similar to those of children diagnosed
with intellectual disabilities by scoring much below average on a variety of self-care tasks,