Chapter 2.docx

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University of Guelph
Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 3150
Michelle Preyde

Chapter 2 Triple P Positive Parenting is an effective, multilevel parenting program to prevent and offer treatment for severe behavioral, emotional, and developmental problems in children Improvements in the use of behavior modification in physical education have been made, including. a. development of reliable observations for monitoring the behavior of physical education teachers and students to provide usable information b. increased acceptance by teachers and school administrators of behavioral teaching skills as important components of teacher preparation programs; c. increased acceptance of behavioral strategies to help physical educators manage a variety of behavioral difficulties of students Behavioral approaches to teaching -Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) uses behavior modification principles to improve classroom instruction. 1. identifies the target behaviors or learning requirements for a course in the form of study questions, such as the questions in each chapter in this book 2. requires students to study only a small amount of material before demonstrating mastery, such as the amount of material in one or two chapters that might be studied in a week or two 3. has frequent tests (at least once every week or two) in which students demonstrate their knowledge of the answers to the study questions 4. has mastery criteria so that students must demonstrate mastery at a particular level before going to the next level 5. is nonpunitive in that students are not penalized for failing to demonstrate mastery on a test but simply restudy and try again 6. uses a number of student assistants called proctors to score tests immediately and provide feedback to students concerning test performance 7. incorporates a "go-at-your-own-pace" feature in which students are allowed to proceed through the course material at rates that suit their own particular abilities and time demands 8. uses lectures primarily for motivation and demonstration rather than as a major means of presenting new information PSI courses can require a good deal of labor rise of computer technology, some instructors have automated much of the PSI procedure to make the approach more efficient. (computer-aided PSI =CAPS1) CAPSI course receive much more substantive feedback than would be possible in a course taught using traditional methods A recent study shows that it enhances both learning and critical thinking Two types of atypical developments that have received special attention from behavior modifiers are intellectual disabilities and autism  American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD) defines the term as it previously had defined mental retardation Intellectual disability: a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills.  This disability originates before age 18"  AAIDD defines limited intellectual functioning as an IQ score that is at least 2 standard deviations below the mean of an appropriate assessment instrument,  approximately 2.3% of the population. 1960s and 1970s revolutionized the education of persons with intellectual disabilities.  normalization advocates, who argued that persons with intellectual disabilities should be helped to lead the most normative lives possible and that traditional large institutions were simply not normative.  civil rights advocates and parents of persons with intellectual disabilities who secured the legal right of individuals with severe disabilities to receive as normal an education as possible.  behavior modifiers who created the technology that made it possible to dramatically improve the behavior of persons with severe and profound intellectual disabilities. In addition to autism there are two other pervasive developmental disorders listed in the DSM-IV-TR include Asperger's syndrome and Pervasive Developmental Disorder--Not Otherwise Specified.  Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) refer to all 3 disorders ASD is not officially defined in the DSM-IV-TR or in any other international classification code. Children diagnosed with autism are likely to show some combination of impaired social behavior impaired communication abnormal play behaviors, and repetitive self stimulatory behaviors and also likely to show some behaviors similar to those of children diagnosed with intellectual disabilities by scoring much below average on a variety of self-care tasks, Early i
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