When a stimulus becomes a conditioned reinforcer through deliberate association with
other reinforcers, the other reinforcers are called backup reinforcers.
can be either unconditioned reinforcersor other conditioned reinforcers
The main advantage of using tokens or other conditioned reinforcers in a behavior
modification program is that they can usually be delivered more immediately than the
backup reinforcer can.
they help to bridge delays between behavior and more powerful reinforcers.
Conditioned punishment: a stimulus that’s paired with punishment becomes punishing.
The demerit system used in the military is an example of a punishment token system.
FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CONDITIONED REINFORCEMENT
1. The Strength of Backup Reinforcers
The reinforcing power of a conditioned reinforcer depends in part on the
reinforcing power of the backup reinforcer(s) on which it is based.
2. The Variety of Backup Reinforcers
Simple conditioned reinforcer: A c