LEARNING TO RESPOND AT THE RIGHT TIME AND PLACE
Any situation in which behavior occurs can be analyzed in terms of three sets of events:
(a) Antecedent stimuli: the stimuli that exist just prior to the occurrence of the
(b)the behavior itself
(c) the consequences of the behavior
ABC (antecedents, behavior, and consequences) assessment: Identifying the
antecedents and consequences of a behavior
Stimulus control: to refer to the degree of correlation between the occurrence of a
particular stimulus and the occurrence of a subsequent response.
Good or effective stimulus control: a strong correlation between the occurrence of a
particular stimulus and a particular response -when the stimulus occurs, the response is
likely to follow.
TYPES OF CONTROLLING STIMULI: SDs AND SAs
1. Stimulus for reinforcement: SD is a stimulus in the presence of which a response
will be reinforced.
2. Stimulus for extinction: SA is a stimulus in the presence of which a response will not
A stimulus can simultaneously be an SD for one response and an SA for another;
Stimulus discrimination training: the procedure of reinforcing a response in the
presence of an SD and extinguishing that response in the presence of an SA.
effects of discrimination training can be described as good stimulus control-OR- a
Stimulus generalization: the procedure of reinforcing a response in the presence of a
stimulus or situation and the effect of the response becoming more probable in the
presence of another stimulus or situation.
Unlearned Stimulus Generalization Due to Considerable Physical Similarity
the more physically similar two stimuli are, the more stimulus generalization will
occur between them.
Learned Stimulus Generalization Involving Minimal Physical Similarity
Common-element stimulus class: is a set of stimuli, all of which have one or more
physical characteristics in common.
Conceptual behaviour: When an individual emits an appropriate response to all members
of a common-element stimulus class and does not emit that response to stimuli that do not