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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 3150
Michelle Preyde

Chapter 29 Pavlovian conditioning= classical conditioning= respondent conditioning Unconditional reflex: is unlearned or not conditional on any pairing process (food- salivation reflex) Conditional reflex: is learned or conditional on a pairing process (tone-salivation reflex) John B. Watson advocated an alternative approach that he called behaviorism. He argued that most complex activities were due to Pavlovian conditioning. He used Pavlovian conditioning of a fear response in an 11-month-old infant. Sherrington Reciprocal inhibition: if one group of muscles is stimulated, an antagonistic muscle group will be inhibited, and vice versa. a general process acting throughout the nervous system. Wolpe extended the principle of reciprocal inhibition to say if a response that is incompatible with a learned fear can be made to occur to a stimulus that had been conditioned to produce that fear, then that stimulus will cease to elicit the fear reaction. Systematic desensitization: used relaxation responses to inhibit a learned fear or anxiety B. F Skinner The first psychologist to make a clear distinction between behavior that is elicited by stimuli (respondent) and behavior that is controlled by its consequences (operant). lever that a laboratory rat could press experimental chamber a Skinner box. Operant conditioning: type of learning in which behavior is modified by its consequences. Behavioral Model of Abnormal Behavior: suggests that abnormal behavior is a function of specifiable environmental causes and that it is possible to rearrange the environment so that the behavior can be changed or improved. Medical Model of Abnormal Behavior: viewed abnormal behavior as a symptom of an underlying disturbance in a personality mechanism with the implication that one must treat the underlying personality disturbance through Freudian psychoanalysis Functional analysis: is the discovery of controlling variables for behavior by directly assessing their effects on behavior. variables such as antecedents and consequences in the environment MIXTURES AND OFFSHOOTS OF THE TWO MAJOR ORIENTATIONS Much of the early history of behavior modification and behavior therapy clearly falls withi
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