Pavlovian conditioning= classical conditioning= respondent conditioning
Unconditional reflex: is unlearned or not conditional on any pairing process (food-
Conditional reflex: is learned or conditional on a pairing process (tone-salivation reflex)
John B. Watson
advocated an alternative approach that he called behaviorism.
He argued that most complex activities were due to Pavlovian conditioning.
He used Pavlovian conditioning of a fear response in an 11-month-old infant.
Reciprocal inhibition: if one group of muscles is stimulated, an antagonistic muscle group
will be inhibited, and vice versa.
a general process acting throughout the nervous system.
extended the principle of reciprocal inhibition to say if a response that is incompatible
with a learned fear can be made to occur to a stimulus that had been conditioned to
produce that fear, then that stimulus will cease to elicit the fear reaction.
Systematic desensitization: used relaxation responses to inhibit a learned fear or anxiety
B. F Skinner
The first psychologist to make a clear distinction between behavior that is elicited by
stimuli (respondent) and behavior that is controlled by its consequences (operant).
lever that a laboratory rat could press experimental chamber a Skinner box.
Operant conditioning: type of learning in which behavior is modified by its consequences.
Behavioral Model of Abnormal Behavior: suggests that abnormal behavior is a function
of specifiable environmental causes and that it is possible to rearrange the environment so
that the behavior can be changed or improved.
Medical Model of Abnormal Behavior: viewed abnormal behavior as a symptom of an
underlying disturbance in a personality mechanism with the implication that one must
treat the underlying personality disturbance through Freudian psychoanalysis
Functional analysis: is the discovery of controlling variables for behavior by directly
assessing their effects on behavior.
variables such as antecedents and consequences in the environment
MIXTURES AND OFFSHOOTS OF THE TWO MAJOR ORIENTATIONS
Much of the early history of behavior modification and behavior therapy clearly falls