Chapter 12.docx

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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 3150
Michelle Preyde

Chapter 12: Eliminating inappropriate behaviour through punishment THE PRINCIPLE OF PUNISHMENT:  Punisher: is a stimulus whose presentation immediately after a behaviour causes that behaviour to decrease in frequency  Punishment: someone does something that is immediately followed by a punisher, then that person is less likely to do that again when they next encounters a similar situation. TYPES OF PUNISHERS Pain inducing punisher:  A stimulus immediately following a behaviour that activates pain receptors that typically evoke feelings of discomfort  Unconditioned punishers: which are stimuli that are punishing without prior learning Reprimand:  A strong negative verbal stimulus immediately contingent on behavior immediately after their child emits an undesirable behaviour Timeout:  Is a period of time immediately following a particular behaviour during which an individual loses the opportunity to earn reinforces  Exclusionary timeout: consists of removing an individual briefly from a reinforcing situation immediately following a behaviour  The period in the timeout room should not be long; about 5 minutes  Nonexlusionary timeout: consists of introducing into the situation immediately following a behaviour, a stimulus associated with less reinforcement Response cost:  Involves the removal of a specified amount of reinforcer immediately following a behaviour  response cost differs from a timeout in that, when response cost is administered, the individual does not temporarily lose the opportunity to earn reinforcers.  In an extinction procedure, a reinforcer is withheld following a previously reinforced response where as in response cost, a reinforcer is taken following an undesirable response.  Direct acting effect: punishment is decreased frequency of a response because of its immediate punishing consequences  Indirect acting effect: punishment is the weakening of a response that is followed by a punisher even though the punisher delayed FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PUNISHMENT 1. The conditions for a desirable alternative response: max effective to increase a desirable alternative response that competes with the undesirable behaviour 2. Cause of undesirable behaviour: person identify and eliminate existing reinforcers that are maintaining the undesirable behaviour  Functional assessment: identifying the antecedents and consequences of a behaviour 3. Punishing stimulus: the more intense or strong the punishing stimulus the more effective it will be in decreasing the undesirable behavior  the intensity of the punisher that is needed to be effective depends  more effective to select several that vary over successive instances of the undesirable behavior 4. Antecedents (including verbal rules) for punishment  Sdp is a stimulus in the presence of which a response will be punished.  in the pre
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