Chapter 14.docx

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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 3150
Michelle Preyde

Chapter 14: Procedures based on principles of respondent conditioning OPERANT VERSUS RESPONDENT BEHAVIOR:  operant conditioning, which is the process of strengthening a behavior by reinforcing it or weakening it by punishing it  Operant behaviours that operate in the environment to generate consequences and are in turn controlled by those consequences  Respondent behaviour: are behaviours caused by prior stimuli and are not affected by their consequences PRINCIPLE OF RESPONDENT CONDITIONING:  Respondent conditioning is based on unconditioned reflexes  Unconditioned reflex: is a stimulus response relationship in which a stimulus automatically elicits a response apart from any prior learning  Unconditioned stimulus: a stimulus that elicits a response without prior learning or conditioning  Unconditioned response: a response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus Respondent conditioning:  States that If a stimulus is followed closely in time by a US that elicits a UR then the will also tend to elicit that response in the future  Conditioned reflex: stimulus response relationship in which a stimulus elicits a response because of prior respondent conditioning  Conditioned stimulus: as a stimulus that elicits a response because that stimulus has been paired with another stimulus that elicits that response  Conditioned response: defined as a response elicited by a condition stimulus Factors Influencing Respondent Conditioning: 1. The more the number of pairings of a CS with a US, the more likely the ability of the CS to elicit the CR until a max strength of the conditioned reflex has been reached. 2. Stronger conditioning occurs if the CS precedes the US by about half a second rather than by a longer time or rather than following the US. Backward conditioning: the CS occurs following the US -is difficult to attain. 3. A CS acquires a more likely ability to elicit a CR if the CS is always paired with the US than if it is only occasionally paired with the US. 4. When several neutral stimuli precede a US, the stimulus that is most consistently associated with the US is the one most likely to become a strong CS. 5. Respondent conditioning will develop more quickly and strongly when the CS or US or both are intense rather than weak HIGHER-ORDER CONDITIONING:  The procedure in which a neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus by being paired with another conditioned stimulus instead of with an unconditioned stimulus  CS with the US is referred to as conditioning of the first order.  CS2 with the CS1 is referred to as conditioning of the second order.  higher-order conditioning beyond the second order appears to be difficult. RESPONDENT EXTINCTION:  Involves the procedure of presenting a CS while withholding the US with the result that the CS gradually loses its capability of eliciting the CR  the reason that higher-order conditioning is difficult to obtain beyond the second order COUNTERCONDITIONING:  CS will lose its ability to elicit a CR if that CS is paired with a stimulus that elicits a response that is incompatible with the CR. COMMON RESPONDENTLY CONDITIONED RESPONSES:  Digestive system- salivation  Circulatory system - heart rate a
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