Chapter 14: Procedures based on principles of respondent conditioning
OPERANT VERSUS RESPONDENT BEHAVIOR:
operant conditioning, which is the process of strengthening a behavior by reinforcing it
or weakening it by punishing it
Operant behaviours that operate in the environment to generate consequences and are
in turn controlled by those consequences
Respondent behaviour: are behaviours caused by prior stimuli and are not affected by
PRINCIPLE OF RESPONDENT CONDITIONING:
Respondent conditioning is based on unconditioned reflexes
Unconditioned reflex: is a stimulus response relationship in which a stimulus
automatically elicits a response apart from any prior learning
Unconditioned stimulus: a stimulus that elicits a response without prior learning or
Unconditioned response: a response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus
States that If a stimulus is followed closely in time by a US that elicits a UR then the will
also tend to elicit that response in the future
Conditioned reflex: stimulus response relationship in which a stimulus elicits a response
because of prior respondent conditioning
Conditioned stimulus: as a stimulus that elicits a response because that stimulus has
been paired with another stimulus that elicits that response
Conditioned response: defined as a response elicited by a condition stimulus
Factors Influencing Respondent Conditioning:
1. The more the number of pairings of a CS with a US, the more likely the ability of the CS to
elicit the CR until a max strength of the conditioned reflex has been reached.
2. Stronger conditioning occurs if the CS precedes the US by about half a second rather than
by a longer time or rather than following the US.
Backward conditioning: the CS occurs following the US -is difficult to attain.
3. A CS acquires a more likely ability to elicit a CR if the CS is always paired with the US
than if it is only occasionally paired with the US.
4. When several neutral stimuli precede a US, the stimulus that is most consistently
associated with the US is the one most likely to become a strong CS.
5. Respondent conditioning will develop more quickly and strongly when the CS or US or
both are intense rather than weak
The procedure in which a neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus by being
paired with another conditioned stimulus instead of with an unconditioned stimulus
CS with the US is referred to as conditioning of the first order.
CS2 with the CS1 is referred to as conditioning of the second order.
higher-order conditioning beyond the second order appears to be difficult.
Involves the procedure of presenting a CS while withholding the US with the result that
the CS gradually loses its capability of eliciting the CR
the reason that higher-order conditioning is difficult to obtain beyond the second order COUNTERCONDITIONING:
CS will lose its ability to elicit a CR if that CS is paired with a stimulus that elicits a
response that is incompatible with the CR.
COMMON RESPONDENTLY CONDITIONED RESPONSES:
Digestive system- salivation
Circulatory system - heart rate a