Chapter 16: Transferring Behaviour to a new Setting and Making it Last
Generality: When a trained behaviour transfers from the training situation to the natural
environment, or when the training leads to the development of a new behaviour that has
not been specifically trained, or when the trained behaviour is maintained in the natural
environment over time.
Stimulus Generalization: Refers to the procedure of reinforcing a response in the
presence of a stimulus or situation and the effect of the response becoming more probable
in the presence of another stimulus or situation. May happen because 2 stimuli are similar
is appearance, or has been grouped together (common-element stimulus classes and
stimulus equivalence classes).
Response Generalization: When behaviour becomes more probable as a result of the
reinforcement of another behaviour.
occurs for several reasons.
1.UNLEARNED RESPONSE GENERALIZATION DUE TO
CONSIDERABLE PHYSICAL SIMILARITY OF RESPONSES
2.LEARNED RESPONSE GENERALIZATION BASED ON MINIMAL
PHYSICAL SIMILARITY OF RESPONSES
widely different responses that share a common characteristic
3. LEARNED RESPONSE GENERALIZATION DUE TO FUNCTIONALLY
Functionally equivalent responses: different responses that produce
the same consequences
FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PROGRAMMING
GENERALITY OF OPERANT BEHAVIOR
distinguish two situations:
1. the training situation in which the behavior is initially strengthened and
2. the target situation--a situation in which we want generality to occur- is usually the
programming is somewhat different for operant and respondent behavior,
Programming Operant Stimulus Generalization
The initial occurrence of stimulus generalization depends critically on the physical
similarity between the training and the target situations
1. TRAIN IN THE TARGET SITUATION
make the final stages of the training situation similar to the target situation in as
many ways as possible.
2. VARY THE TRAINING CONDITIONS
conducting training sessions with relatively little control over the stimuli in the
presence of which correct responses are reinforced.
3. PROGRAM COMMON STIMULI
Program common stimuli deliberately by developing the behavior to specific
stimuli that are present in both the training and target settings.
A useful strategy for programming common stimuli