Chapter 17.docx

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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 3150
Michelle Preyde

Chapter 17: Antecedent Control: Rules and Goals ANTECEDENT CONTROL  Because our behavior of responding to various antecedent stimuli (people, places, words, smells,) haver been reinforced, those stimuli exert control over our behavior whenever they occur.  Treatment packages that focus on the manipulation of antecedent stimuli fall into the categories of rules, goals, modeling, physical guidance, situational inducement, and motivation. RULES  describes a situation in which a behavior will lead to a consequence.  rules can function as an SD--a cue that emitting the behavior will lead to the reinforcer identified in the rule, or a cue that not following the rule will lead to a punisher  Sometimes rules clearly identify reinforcers or punishers associated with following the rules, but in other cases, consequences are implied (ex. rules stated in the form of advice)  Rules in the form of a command or a threat imply that noncompliance will be punished.  Partial rules: Rules that do not identify all three aspects of a contingency of reinforcement (antecedent, the behaviour, and consequence) Contingency-Shaped Versus Rule-Governed Behavior  contingency-shaped behaviour: behavior that develops because of its immediate consequences and typically strengthened through "trial and error"  rule-governed behaviour: behaviour controlled by the statement of a rule and often involves delayed consequences and frequently leads to immediate behavior change. When Rules Are Especially Helpful 1.When rapid behaviour change is desirable  much more rapidly than shaping, chaining, or trial and error 2.When consequences are delayed  Adding the rule, there is a increased chance of the delayed reinforcer being effective 3.When natural reinforcers are highly intermittent 4.When behaviour will lead to immediate and severe punishment  Rules can help people learn appropriate behavior when learning "the hard way" could be costly Why Rules Control Our Behavior 1. although the reinforcer identified in a rule might be delayed for an individual, other people might provide other immediate consequences if the individual follows or does not follow the rule. 2. an individual might follow a rule and then immediately make reinforcing statements/ failure to comply with a rule might lead to immediate self-punishment. 3. our operant-respondent interactions give us a reinforcement history so that following rules is automatically strengthened and failure to follow rules is automatically punished.  When you comply with the rule, your anxiety decreases and your rule following is maintained by escape conditioning.  whether such automatic consequences will continue to influence your rule following will depend on the extent to which you continue to experience punishment for noncompliance with rules Effective and Ineffective Rules 1.Specific versus vague descriptions of be
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