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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 3150
Michelle Preyde

Chapter 29 Historical Perspective and Ethical Issues 4/18/2013 3:52:00 PM Ivan P. Pavlov (Pavlovian conditioning) -Won Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1904 -Measuring the secretions of the salivary glands as well as stomach, pancreas and small intestine glands -Presentation of food to a dog produced a chain of digestive secretions beginning with salivation -Sight of smell of food and sounds of it being prepared produced digestive gland secretion (basis for studying reflexes) -Unconditional reflex: is unlearned or not conditional on any pairing process (food-salivation reflex) -Conditional reflex: is learned or conditional on a pairing process (tone-salivation reflex) John B. Watson -Advocated an alternative approach to “science of mind” (1913), and called it behaviorism -Argued that the most complex activities were due to Pavlovian conditioning -Used Pavlovian conditioning of a fear response in an 11-month old infant  Child was not afraid of a white rat, and after pairing of the white rat with loud noise, caused the infant to exhibit a conditioned reflex of fear to the rat -During the next 20 years, no applications appears to have sustained impact on the development of behavior modification as we know it today Sherrington Reciprocal Inhibition: if one group of muscles is stimulated, an antagonistic muscle group will be inhibited, and vice versa  A general process acting throughout the nervous system Jones -Eliminated child’s fear reactions to a rabbit by gradually moving the rabbit closer to the child over trials while the child was engaging in pleasurable activities Wolpe -Extended the principle of reciprocal inhibition to state that if a response that is incompatible with a learned fear or anxiety can be made to occur to a stimulus that had been conditioned to produce that fear, then the stimulus will cease to elicit the fear reaction -Developed earliest behavioral treatment for specific phobias or intense irrational fears (heights) Systematic Desensitization: used relaxation responses to prevent a learned fear or anxiety B.F. Skinner -First psychologist to make a clear distinction between behavior that is elicited by stimuli (respondent) and behavior that is controlled by its consequences (operant) -Lever that a laboratory rat could press and a mechanism for dispensing food pellets to reinforce the rat’s lever pressing (Skinner Box) Operant Conditioning: type of learning where behavior is modified by its consequences Behavioral Model of Abnormal Behavior: suggests that abnormal behavior is a function of specifiable environmental causes and that it is possible to rearrange the environment so that the behavior can be changed or improved Medical Model of Abnormal Behav
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