Chapter 8.docx

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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 3150
Michelle Preyde

Chapter 8 Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Generalization 4/18/2013 6:55:00 PM Any situation where behavior occurs can be analyzed in terms of 3 sets of events: 1. Antecedent stimuli: The stimuli that exist prior to the occurrence of the behavior 2. The behavior itself 3. The consequences of the behavior ABC (antecedents, behavior, and consequences) assessment: Identifying the antecedents and consequences of a behavior Stimuli: People, objects and events currently present in ones immediate surroundings that affect ones sense receptors and that can affect behavior Stimulus Control: the degree of correlation between the occurrence of a particular stimulus and the occurrence of a subsequent response Good or Effective Stimulus Control: strong correlation between the occurrence of a stimulus and a response (when stimulus occurs, response is likely to follow)  Eg. Putting money into vending machine, you see the name of the bar beside a particular button, you press that button- exerted good stimulus control over your button pressing behavior Types of Controlling Stimuli: S D s and S (triangle) s Discriminative Stimulus (stimulus of reinforcement) (SD): stimulus in the presence where a response will be reinforced (cue that a particular response will pay off) Stimulus for Extinction (S triangle): stimulus in the presence where a response will not be reinforced (cue that a particular response will not pay off)  Eg. When a child swears, the stimulus of the other kids is a discriminative stimulus for the response of swearing because their laughter and attention reinforced that response o When child is around grandparents, the grandparents is a stimulus for extinction for the response of swearing because it was not reinforced in their presence -Stimulus can be discriminative for one response and extinction for another  Eg. A one way sign, the sign is an S D (discriminative stimulus) in the direction of the arrow, and an extinction ( S triangle) for driving in a direction against that signified by the arrow Stimulus Generalization: procedure of reinforcing a response in the presence of a stimulus and the effect of the response becoming more probable in the presence of another stimulus (opposite of stimulus discrimination) -Several reasons for the occurrence of stimulus generalization: 1. Unlearned Stimulus Generalization Due to Considerable Physical Similarity - People/animals are likely to perform a behavior in a new situation if that situation is similar to the one in which they learned the behavior  Eg. Infant learns to say “doggie” to large, hairy, four-legged creature and a friendly bark. Later, the infant sees a different dog and says “doggie”. 2. Learned Stimulus Generalization Involving Minimal Physical Similarity Common-element stimulus class: set of stimuli, all of which have one or more physical characteristics in common (stimulus class) -Use the term common-element stimulus class to distinguish it from a stimulus- equivalent class  Eg. Cars have four wheels, windows and a steering wheel. When a child learns to say car when seeing a particular one, the child is likely to show unlearned stimulus generalization and be able to identify other cars  Eg. Teaching the concept of wetness, you would reinforce the response wet to many different wet objects and extinguish that response to dry objects -When a person shows appropriate response to all members of a common-element stimulus class and does not emit that response to stimuli that do not belong to that class, we say that the person generalizes to all members within a common-element stimulus class (distinguishing between red and blue objects) 3. Learned Stimulus Generalization Due to Stimulus Equivalence Classes Stimulus equivalence class: set of completely dissimilar stimuli that a person has learned to group or match together  The members of this stimulus equivalence class are functionally equivalent in the sense that they all control the same behavior  Each of these stimulus equivalence classes are also referred to as concept -Note that what may be a common-element stimulus class for some people is a stimulus equivalence class for others  Eg. the tomato is a member of the common-element stimulus class fruit for botanists, and a member of the stimulus equivalence class vegetable for cooks Factors Determining the Effectiveness of Stimulus Discrimination Training 1. Choosing Distinct Signals -If it is important to develop stimulus control of a behavior, it is desirable to identify controlling discriminative stimuli that are very distinctive  Eg. Teacher used red letters for a sign that prompted the students to listen and look at the t
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