FRHD 3400 Additional Readings Chapter 13.docx

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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 3400
Tuuli Kukkonen

FRHD 3400: Additional Reading- Chapter 13 Cognitive- Behavioral Therapy - Cognition refers to the methods people use to understand their environment and themselves, such as their perceptions, sensations, learning, memory, and other psychological processes. - Cognitive therapy focuses on people s thinking as the primary pathway to change. - Aaron T. Beck developed cognitive therapy The Nature of People - Beck explained that infants are born with the disposition to survive and desire to procreate - Innate feelings of pleasure and pain is used as a guide through out life - People perceive, interpret and learn from different experiences - Cognitive therapists acknowledge that children have different temperaments that push them in diverse directions and therefore are more likely to perceive the same event differently. - Distress occurs when there is a threat to ones interest o Example: infant cries to be fed or teenager fears being without friends - The Hierarchial Structural Organizational Model - This model describes cognition within a person: o Automatic thoughts o Intermediate beliefs o Core beliefs o Schemas - Cognitive counseling usually starts with the automatic thoughts - Moves to identifying, evaluating, and changing inter-mediate and core beliefs, then to modifying schemas. - Automatic thoughts are: o Immediate o Self- talk o Persons everyday private commentary o Connect a situation and a emotion o reflect the meaning a person gives the situation - Intermediate Beliefs reflect: o Absolute rules o Attitudes that influence a person s automatic thoughts - Core beliefs o Are the significant ideas about ourselves from which many automatic thoughts o Many intermediate beliefs grow from these beliefs o They are global thoughts o They are over generalized and absolute FRHD 3400: Additional Reading- Chapter 13 o These beliefs are not necessarily true o These beliefs may have started in childhood o Reflects a person s view of the world, future, their sense of self and events in a persons experiences o These beliefs can be modified o Also may be healthy o Negative core beliefs are: Hopeless beliefs (I am a failure) Unlovable beliefs ( I am not good enough) - As counselors hear automatic thoughts, they can begin to discern patterns of core beliefs and build hypotheses to be shared with the client when it is appropriate. - Schemas o Are cognitive structures within the mind that integrate core beliefs o Go beyond core emotion and include emotions thoughts and actions o Lead expectations o Act as mental filters to perceptions o Cognitive schemas are core beliefs such as Danger, violation, loss, and gain Emotional schemas are core emotions, such as anxiety, anger, joy, and sadness. . Motivational schemas are the core impulses: to escape or avoid, to attack, to grieve, or to approach. . Physiological schemas are the body s autonomic, motor, and sensory systems. Behavioral schemas are core actions such as smiling, shaking, and crying - Cognitive- behavioral therapist has three fundamental assumptions 1) Cognitive activity impacts behavior 2) Cognitive activity can be monitored and changed 3) Critical to cognitive-behavioral therapy is that a desired change in behavior can be accomplished through changing cognition - Based on these assumptions, cognitive-behavioral counselors work to help the child become aware of their distorted thinking, identify ways the distorted thinking relates to negative feelings and behaviors, and then change their thoughts and behaviors Theory of Counseling - Explained that cognitive therapists see personality as a reflection of the person s cognitive organization and structure - The difference between health and dysfunction is in the way new experiences are assimilated into schemas. - Mental health problems are the result of: Cognitive biasesFRHD 3400: Additional Reading- Chapter 13 Maladaptive thinking styles that cause misinterpretations of events, Irrational beliefs Failure to see the world or self in a realistic way - Unrealistic thinking causes either internal pain such as depression or anxiety or problem behavior such as aggression therapeutic intervention is needed. - Cognitive distortion incorporates a person s sense of self, environment, and future (the cognitive triad) - . The example: depressed individuals view themselves as lacking persons competence - Cognitive therapists look for patterns and connections among events, thoughts, emotions, and behavior. o Catastrophizing: expecting disastrous events o Mental filtering: seeing an entire situation based on one detail with all else ignored o All-or-nothing thinking: the person thinks in terms of two opposite categories o Overgeneralization: a sweeping negative conclusion that goes beyond facts o help clients deal with these distortions, cognitive-behavioral counselors use some common techniques. Three concepts fundamental to cognitive- behavioral therapy: C
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