FRHD 3400 Additional Readings Chapter 6.docx

8 Pages

Family Relations and Human Development
Course Code
FRHD 3400
Tuuli Kukkonen

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ADDITIONAL READING CHAPTER 6: COUNSELING CHILDREN Humanistic philosophy characterizes people as capable and autonomous beings who have the capacity to solve their own problems, work toward their full potential, and make positive changes in their lives. Rogers believed a counseling relationship based on the warmth and responsiveness of the therapist. Rogers believed that in such a relationship clients would express their feelings and thoughts” Rogers: First phase: focused on differences between directive and n nondirective approaches to counseling. Clinicians should not tell clients how to change but rather to help clients express, clarify, and gain insight into their emotions. Second phase: client’s responsibility and counselors therapeutic stance. But treatment could not be totally nondirective. Counselors role as being more active, must communicate empathy, congruence, and acceptance to create a therapeutic alliance. Third phase: healthy and fully functioning people as those who are open to experience and appreciative of themselves. Person –centred phase: Rogers represented concern with all of humanity. Rogers promoted belief that people have within them resources for understanding themselves. THE NATURE OF PEOPLE: Rogers: viewed people as rational, socialized, forward moving, and realistic beings. He argued that negative, antisocial emotions are only a result of frustrated basic impulses. He considered people at their most fundamental level to be essentially positive with a tendency to grow, to heal, and to move toward their fullest potential. Child centred counselors believe people: Have worth and dignity in their own right and therefore deserve respect Have the capacity and right to self-direction and when given the opportunity make wise judgments Can select their own values Can learn to make constructive us of responsibility Have the capacity to deal with their own feelings, thoughts, and behavior Have the potential for constructive change and personal development toward a full and satisfying life. CORE CONCEPTS: Person – the person develops and “exists in a continually changing world of experience of which he is the centre”. World – World here means everything the child experiences internally as well as externally. Internal references contain basis for looking at life. Whatever the child perceives to be happening makes up his reality. Self – self is the person’s private world that becomes recognized as “me” across interactions with others. Self-concept – an organized configuration of perceptions of the self, which are admissible to awareness. Characteristics and abilities, self in relation to others and environment. In order to decrease the likelihood of those external evaluations replacing a healthy sense of oneself, the child centred counselor acknowledges the person, world, and the self of the child, believing each person has the capacity to move steadily toward growth and health. If children are given unconditional positive regard - messages that they are special just because of who they are – they are more likely to become fully functioning adults. THEORY OF COUNSELING Child- centred counselors create an environment in which a child can discover and explore, focus on the relationship with the child, concentrate on the child rather than the problem, the present rather than the past, feelings rather than behaviours, understanding rather than explaining, accepting rather than correcting, the child’s wisdom and direction rather than the counselors. Six core conditions for personality change: 1. Two people are in psychological contact – caring an investment in relationship 2. Client is in a state of incongruence therefore motivated to change 3. Therapist is congruent and involved in the relationship. Genuine, trusted, actualizing model 4. Therapist offers unconditional positive regard for client 5. Therapist experiences empathetic understanding of the client’s internal frame of reference. Creates a place where client can increase self awareness 6. The communication of empathetic and positive regard is achieved. If client feels valued by counselor they can value themselves more. RELATIONSHIP Counselors – value and accept people as they are, assume people can solve their own problems, focus on strengths and successes, demonstrate the qualities of congruence, unconditional positive regard, and empathy. Leads to client’s self-exploration. Congruence – Counselor’s ability to be genuine and aware of themselves and the way others see them By replacing advice, interpretations, and questions with the active listening process of limiting his responses to summaries and clarifications of the content, feelings, and expectations for counseling. Directing the counseling interview would be an important first step for clients to begin directing their lives outside the counseling interview. Clients receiving child centred counseling learn more about themselves and their unsolved problems then they have ever known because they are in a teaching role of trying to help counselors understand their situations. If counselors create a warm and accepting climate in interviews, children trust the counselor enough to risk sharing their ideas about their lives and the problems they face. They feel free to explore their feelings, thoughts, and behaviours as they relate to their personal growth, development and adjustment. This should lead to more effective decision making and productive behaviours. Child centred counseling can be thought of in 2 dimensions: 1 responsive and facilitative, which included attending, observing, and listening 2 initiative which included initiating, personalizing, and responding Clients thereby learn more about themselves, because teaching also generally helps the teacher learn. GOALS The main goal of child 0 centred therapy is assisting people in becoming more autonomous, spontaneous, and confident. As people become more aware of what is going on inside themselves, they can cease fearing and defending their inner feelings. Child becomes more confident and ore self-directed The ultimate goal of child centred therapy is for the client to be a fully functioning person who has learned to be free and who can counsel himself or herself. Central to the child centred counseling is helping children trust and be honest with themselves. Other goals include promoting awareness of self, optimism and responsibility, congruence and autonomy. COUNSELING METHOD Effective child centred counselors must possess openness, empathic understanding, independence, spontaneity, acceptance, mutual respect, and intimacy. ASSESSMENT Child centred counselors rarely use diagnostic and assessment tools. PROCESS Outlines by Rogers in 12 steps: 1. Individual comes for help 2. Helping situation is characterized as a chance to grow 3. Counselor promotes free expression of feelings 4. Counselor accepts, recognizes an clarifies these feelings 5. When person’s negative feelings have been fully expressed, they are often followed by a tentative expression of positive drives toward growth 6. Counselor accepts and recognizes the positive feelings, gives person a chance to understand themselves – insight and self understanding 7. Insight (understanding and acceptance of self) provides a foundation from which the person can move to a new level of integration 8. Mingled with the insight in an awakening to clarification of possible decisions and courses of action 9. Then the beginning of small but significant positive actions begin 10. Further insight occurs 11. More integrated positive action, less fear, and more confidence follow 12. The person feels less need for help and recognizes the relationship in near an end Rogerian Model for Help: First phase – self exploration, people examine exactly where they are in their lives. Second Phase – people begin to understand the relationship between where they are in life and where they would like to be Third Phase – involves goal directed action Only exception to the logical order of these three stages might be in helping children. Their movement through the process may be more meaningful if action is followed y understanding and then self exploration. Children problem solve better when they can move from concrete to abstract thinking. TECHNIQUES Strongest technique is attitudes toward people – empathy, congruence, and unconditional positive regard. Rogers 6 principles he believed helped him become more effective in understanding and showing empathy in counseling: 1. “ In my relation
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