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Food 2012 - Unit 12 Chapter Summary.docx

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Food Science
FOOD 2010
Massimo Marcone

Unit 12 (Pages 434-442) The Sensory Environment  The sensory environment must be properly planned to minimize distractions to allow panelists to focus on their sample evaluations  Panelists are placed in a room with a neutral shaded wall and controlled temperature  The panelist and scientist are separated by two-way sliding doors where samples and score sheets can be passed  The panelists testing room helps keep out competing odours and are equipped with a computer to input their evaluations  Panelists are not allowed to talk to one another since it distracts them and causes them to have biased opinions Product Development  Product development is a process in which new food product ideas are formed, it involves the conceptualization, formulation, processing, testing, and marketing of food products  New product ideas are expensive and risky for the manufacturer in terms of developmental cost, formulation, testing, and marketing strategies  New product development needs to be organized and efficient so many manufacturers use the scientific method in product research and development to introduce the product to consumers  The product development team includes all the individuals employed by a food manufacturer who contribute to the product development process Marketing Personnel (commercial expertise) Cost Accounting Personnel (financial expertise) Product Development Scientists (technical expertise) Production Personnel Q.A. Personnel (food control (operations expertise) expertise) The Scientific Method in Product Development  The scientific method is a procedure in which a problem or question is identified and a sequence of steps is taken to find, solve, or answer that question.  Product Development Scientists are trained to: 1. Define a problem or ask the question: “What new food product are we trying to create?” 2. Solve the problem or answer the question by arriving at a hypothesis: “This is our proposal regarding the formulation and processing required to make the new food product.” 3. Test the hypothesis through carefully designed and controlled experiments in which observations are made and data recorded. 4. Accept or reject the hypothesis based upon analysis and interpretation of the results of the experiments.  Selection and application of food ingredients is an important skill for a product development scientist  Value-added food products are foods that offer the consumer some improvement in terms of quality or convenience over the current foods available (an example would be instant pudding because it requires less preparation time) The Stages of Product Development  The starting point for product development is the corporate mission which looks at key aspects such as: who it is, what are its products, and who are the consumers (an example is a manufacturer’s objective to becoming the number one frozen French-fried potatoes)  A product strategy is a plan that accomplishes a company’s mission and objectives (an example to market different fry shapes and flavours under a single brand)  The products in the example above would be considered a product line because they are considered the same product line  The realistic practicality of a new product variety or line is based on its feasibility  A line extension is a new form of an established product or family of products such as a new flavour of chip  Line extensions are relatively inexpensive to create because they take less time to develop than a product from scratch (an example would be a puffed rice cereal coming out with a honey-flavoured variant)  However, if you are introducing not only a new flavour but a new product shape and package type than it gets more costly  The whole product development is divided into three parts including the idea stage, the development stage, and the commercial stage (page 436 figure 15.15) 1. The Idea Stage  This stage identifies the idea, concept, problem, or specific challenge that the product development team works with  This stage not only requires input by food scientists and engineers, but also marketing and management individuals of a food company.  Some questions that are addressed in the idea stage include: o What is the anticipated demand for this product, and who is the competition? o Does the product meet a specific consumer need? o Which ingredients, processing, and packaging are required to formulate and manufacture the product, and are they available at reasonable cost? o What are the desired characteristics of the new product? o How much time and money will it take to bring the product to the commercial stage? o What are the profit objectives and profit potentials of the new product – how much money will it make for the company? 2. The Development Stage  This stage refers to the work involved in creating the design and nature of the product, from a compositional standpoint as well as a processing, packaging, and marketing one  One of the first parts of this stage is to create a bench-top prototype product made in a laboratory which is a small scale batch that can easily and reproducibly formulated for repeated testing without the expense  Questions often addressed during the development stage include: o Is the formulation reproducible, or are changes needed? o How will quality and cost be affected by altering ingredients and processing conditions? o What are the storage requirements of the product and its shelf life? o Will spo
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