Unit 12 (Pages 434-442)
The Sensory Environment
The sensory environment must be properly planned to minimize distractions to allow
panelists to focus on their sample evaluations
Panelists are placed in a room with a neutral shaded wall and controlled temperature
The panelist and scientist are separated by two-way sliding doors where samples and
score sheets can be passed
The panelists testing room helps keep out competing odours and are equipped with a
computer to input their evaluations
Panelists are not allowed to talk to one another since it distracts them and causes them to
have biased opinions
Product development is a process in which new food product ideas are formed, it
involves the conceptualization, formulation, processing, testing, and marketing of food
New product ideas are expensive and risky for the manufacturer in terms of
developmental cost, formulation, testing, and marketing strategies
New product development needs to be organized and efficient so many manufacturers use
the scientific method in product research and development to introduce the product to
The product development team includes all the individuals employed by a food
manufacturer who contribute to the product development process
(commercial expertise) Cost Accounting Personnel
Production Personnel Q.A. Personnel (food control
(operations expertise) expertise) The Scientific Method in Product Development
The scientific method is a procedure in which a problem or question is identified and a
sequence of steps is taken to find, solve, or answer that question.
Product Development Scientists are trained to:
1. Define a problem or ask the question: “What new food product are we trying to
2. Solve the problem or answer the question by arriving at a hypothesis: “This is our
proposal regarding the formulation and processing required to make the new food
3. Test the hypothesis through carefully designed and controlled experiments in
which observations are made and data recorded.
4. Accept or reject the hypothesis based upon analysis and interpretation of the
results of the experiments.
Selection and application of food ingredients is an important skill for a product
Value-added food products are foods that offer the consumer some improvement in terms
of quality or convenience over the current foods available (an example would be instant
pudding because it requires less preparation time)
The Stages of Product Development
The starting point for product development is the corporate mission which looks at key
aspects such as: who it is, what are its products, and who are the consumers (an example
is a manufacturer’s objective to becoming the number one frozen French-fried potatoes)
A product strategy is a plan that accomplishes a company’s mission and objectives (an
example to market different fry shapes and flavours under a single brand)
The products in the example above would be considered a product line because they are
considered the same product line
The realistic practicality of a new product variety or line is based on its feasibility
A line extension is a new form of an established product or family of products such as a
new flavour of chip
Line extensions are relatively inexpensive to create because they take less time to
develop than a product from scratch (an example would be a puffed rice cereal coming
out with a honey-flavoured variant)
However, if you are introducing not only a new flavour but a new product shape and
package type than it gets more costly
The whole product development is divided into three parts including the idea stage, the
development stage, and the commercial stage (page 436 figure 15.15) 1. The Idea Stage
This stage identifies the idea, concept, problem, or specific challenge that the product
development team works with
This stage not only requires input by food scientists and engineers, but also marketing
and management individuals of a food company.
Some questions that are addressed in the idea stage include:
o What is the anticipated demand for this product, and who is the competition?
o Does the product meet a specific consumer need?
o Which ingredients, processing, and packaging are required to formulate and
manufacture the product, and are they available at reasonable cost?
o What are the desired characteristics of the new product?
o How much time and money will it take to bring the product to the commercial
o What are the profit objectives and profit potentials of the new product – how
much money will it make for the company?
2. The Development Stage
This stage refers to the work involved in creating the design and nature of the product,
from a compositional standpoint as well as a processing, packaging, and marketing one
One of the first parts of this stage is to create a bench-top prototype product made in a
laboratory which is a small scale batch that can easily and reproducibly formulated for
repeated testing without the expense
Questions often addressed during the development stage include:
o Is the formulation reproducible, or are changes needed?
o How will quality and cost be affected by altering ingredients and processing
o What are the storage requirements of the product and its shelf life?
o Will spo