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Food - Unit 02 Summary.docx

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Food Science
FOOD 2010
Massimo Marcone

FOOD 2010 Unit 2 7.1 What is a food additive? Food Additive- is a chemical or other substance that becomes a part of a food product either intentionally or accidentally. Intentional additive- purposely added but must receive approval from the FDA before they can be used in foods. (Examples are sugars, salt, corn syrup, baking soda, citric acid, vegetable colouring) Indirect additives- are contaminants that accidentally get into a food product during production, processing, or packaging. Adulteration- the deliberate addition of cheap ingredients to a food to make it appear to be of high quality. (intentional adulteration in USA is illegal) Uses of Food Additives 1) Maintain product consistency- to ensure consistent food textures and characteristics 2) Improve or maintain nutritional value- since nutrients in food can be lacking or lost during processing 3) Maintain palatability and wholesomeness- helps slow product spoilage and rancidity while maintaining taste 4) Provide leavening or control acidity/ alkalinity - for proper flavours, taste, colour 5) Enhance flavour or impart desired colour- to meet consumer expectations Principles for application of additive 1) Safety of a food additive for human consumption must never be in doubt. New additive goes through extensive testing and validation at expense of manufacturer for satisfaction of the FDA. 2) Additive efficacy: Food additive must function in food system in accordance with its stated function under specific conditions of use 3) Must not significantly diminish the nutritional value of the food in which it is functioning, nor should it be used to compensate for improper manufacturing practices that deceives the consumer 4) Should be detectable by a defined method of analysis Major types of Food Additives Anti-Caking and free flowing agents- substances that keep ingredients in powder form for ease of incorporation into formulations during product manufacture (eg. silicates and talc) Antimicrobial agents- inhibit growth of bacteria, yeasts and moulds functions as a preservatives (eg. sodium benzoate, fatty acid salts like calcium propionate, sodium nitrate, sodium chloride, sulphur dioxide, sorbic acid and oxidizing agents like chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, iodine) Antioxidants- inhibit the oxidation of fats and pigments which would result in product rancidity and altered colour (eg. BHA, BHT, propyl gallate, ascorbic acid, and tocopherols) Colorants- (food colours) added to certain food to offset colour loss due to storage or processing of foods, or to correct for natural variations in food colour. (colour additives are either certifiable or exempt from certification) Colour additive certification- assures safety, quality, consistency, and strength of colour additive prior to its use in foods * colour additive does not cause hyperactivity Curing agent- for meats contain sodium nitrate, which helps retain the pink colour of cured meats, as well act as a preservative Dough strengtheners- substances used to improve the machinability of bread dough during processing. (eg. emulsifiers like SSL, sodium stearoyl lactylate, EMG- ehtoxylated monoglyceride, DATEM) Emulsifiers- keep fat globules dispersed in water or water droplets dispersed in fat for products like butter, frankfurters, cakes, salad dressing and ice cream (eg. mono and diglycerides) Emulsifying salts- enhance natural emulsifier activity in food systems like processed cheese (eg sodium and potassium phosphates) Enzymes- biological catalyst that occur naturally in foods used as beneficial food additives. (eg. pectinase in jelly manufacture; glucose oxidase, prevents non-enzymatic browning in powdered egg white, invertase used in chocolate covered cherries) Flavourings- natural or synthetic are added for flavour production or modification. (eg. natural essential oils) Flavour enhancer- like MSG and flavour potentiator substances identified as 5'- nucleotides to make food taste better. Humectants- substance that attracts water within a food product, that may lower the products water activity. (eg. glycerol, sorbitol, mannitol, propylene glycol, polyhydric alcohol, monosaccharide fructose) Leavening agents- baking powder used to enhance leavening effect, rise of dough in baked products. (reaction requires addition of water and produces CO2- leavens it) Nutritional additives- included in food to boost nutrient intake and provide a more balanced diet (eg. vitamins or minerals). Can be enriched or fortified Enrichment- addition of nutrients lost during processing in order to meet a specific standard for a food. (eg. bread, flour, rice are enriched food) Fortification- addition of nutrients either absent or present in insignificant amounts. Adds nutrients that are lacking in diet to prevent or correct a particular nutrient deficiency. (eg iodine in salt, calcium and antioxidants in orange juice) Nonnutritive sweeteners- provides much greater sweetness intensity per amount compared to sucrose. Translates into negligible calorie and nutrient contribution in a food. (eg. aspartame, acesulfame potassium and saccharin) Nutritive sweeteners- provide significant calories from carbohydrates in addition to a level of sweetness intensity. (eg. sucrose, fructose, maltose, lactose, xylitol and sorbitol, molasses) Oxidizing agents- occur in food mainly as residuals from application as sanitizing agents of food processing equipment (eg. hydrogen peroxide). Also act as bleaching agents to whiten food material like flour pH control agents- are acidulants that lower food pH (malice acid, tartaric acid, phosphoric acid, acetic acid also enhance flavourand inhibition of microorganisms), and alkalis and alkaline compounds (sodium hydroxide) that can increase pH. Processing aids- include not only acidulates and alkalis but also buffers and phosphates. Buffers maintain a constant pH to protect colour, flavour and other pH sensitive properties (eg. citrate, critic acid, sodium bicarbonate). Phospates like polyphosphate act to increase water-holding capacity of meats and to stabilize emulsions Sequestrants- combine with metal elements like copper and iron in active oxidation reactions. Form complexes with them where they inhibit development of off-flavours and odors du
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