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Chapter 14

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Food Science
FOOD 2010
New Prof

CHAPTER 14 Food Biotechnology – Technology that manipulates or modifies deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) for the purpose of improving the quality and or safety of foods. Uses the tools of genetic engineering to improve plants, animals, and microorganisms for food production. Cross Breeding- Breeding of two closely related plant species for the purpose of producing crops with desirable characteristics. • Cross breeding can result in unwanted characteristics passed along to the new crop Back Crossing - A breeding technique of crossing the first generation with the parent crop and repeating this process many times to eliminate unwanted characteristics. Transgenic- A plant or animal modified by genetic engineering BENEFITS OF FOOD BIOTECHNOLOGY • Alleviate food shortages in developing countries • Minimize the impact of food production on the environment • Improve the nutritional health population GENETIC ENGINEERING Chromosome- Contains millions of genes • Genetic engineering involves the manipulation of genes and the organisms containing them. DNA is necessary for genetic engineering and is found as a double helix of two intertwined strands. • Each strand is a chain of sugar and phosphate molecules linked together alternatively • A base is attached to each sugar molecule. The four bases are o Adenine o Thymine o Cytosine o Guanine PROTEIN SYNTHESIS • DNA contains the codes necessary for regulation of protein production • Depending on the needs of the cell only certain proteins will be synthesized at any one time MANIPULATING DNA FOOD PRODUCTION • To remove the desired gene at the right place restriction enzymes are used • When restriction enzymes cut they recognize particular base sequences within the DNA molecule that will be removed • DNA ligase helps form chemical bonds join together two DNA strands previously cut by restriction enzymes MRNA • Instead of manipulating DNA engineers can manipulate messenger RNA • There are many mRNA molecules each containing the code for a specific protein • Once the mRNA is found it needs to be turned into DNA in order for restriction enzymes to cut out genes of interest 14.3 REGULATIONS CONTROLLING THE APPLICATION OF FOOD BIOTENCHOLOGY FDA POLICY • 1992 the Food and Drug Administration published a statement regarding its policy on biotechnology-derived foods where the following issues were discussed: Genetic Modification o FDA requires that material/gene that is being introduced into a cell be highly characterized so products are predictable o Insertion of a gene into a cell’s genome must be result in stability Toxicants o Food biotechnology is not permitted to create toxic substances o Any gene that is inserted into a cell must not result in harmful substances Nutrients o Genetic engineering of plant tissues may change the levels of nutrients o This change should be prevented to not negatively affect the nutritional quality of the good Allergenicity o Immunological tests must be carried out to ensure that the gene or substance that is introduced is not an allergen o If an allergen is introduced then the tissues that have received this gene will produce the allergen o This can cause allergic reactions to sensitive individuals Antibiotic Resistance Markers o Antibiotic Resistance markers must be evaluated since the product of such a gene could result in inactivation of oral doses of antibiotics. o There is concern that an antibiotic resistance gene in plant of animal tissues may be transferred to microorganisms in the environment Animal Feeds o Important that companies determine whether biotechnology-derived plant products used in the manufacture of animal feed will result in any harm to the animals. o Harm could be caused by production of harmful substances, or reduction in the production of essential nutrients Mandatory Labeling o Special labeling must be used in genetically engineered products if the genetic manipulation significantly changes it from its conventional counterpart o If genetically derived food differs significantly in comparison from its natural counterpart the name of the food must be changed or add a qualifier to make the difference apparent o Any differences in terms of usage of the food product when compared to the natural product must be listed o Genetically engineered food that does not differ from their natural counterpart do not need a label Voluntary Labeling o Some food companies want to include other information on the label on a voluntary basis o Example is some companies claiming that they do not use biotechnology-derived ingredients and that their good products are not biotechnology-produced. However evidence is needed Determining the Safety of Biotechnology-Derived Foods Substantial equivalence- If a food or food component is found to be substantially equivalent to an existing food or food component then it should be considered as safe as the conventional food or food component • Substantial equivalence should be made by comparing a food to one that is close to the species level as possible • For this assessment to occur the biotechnology company must gather facts about the host organism • Such as origin, classification, name, relationship to other organisms, history of use as a food source, production of toxins or allergenic compounds, and presence of factors that may negatively affect nutrients in foods • Company must also include the method of insertion of DNA into the host. • FDA must receive information on the modified organism such as selection and screening metho
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