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Week 1 Readings.docx

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University of Guelph
Food Science
FOOD 2010
Massimo Marcone

Week 1 Readings Chapter 2 (p.21-55) 2.2 Beverages • Nutrient Density: A term used to describe an item that supplies a variety of proteins, complex carbs, vitamins and minerals without excess fat and calories • Degrees Brix = weight percentage of sucrose in a solution - % of sucrose in a 100g solution • Sucrose is comprised of 1 glucose molecule and 1 fructose molecule • Through sucrose inversion (hydrolysis of the sucrose molecule), the two molecules lose their bind and become individual compounds • This can happen through high temperature storage or low PH levels of storage (high acidity) • This results in a sweeter flavour as fructose is the sweetest of all sugars 2.3 Cereals, Grains, and Baked Products • Sugar cane and beets are two non-cereal crops that can be processed into sugars and syrups • Cereal grains have three parts: o Endosperm o Bran o Germ • Unprocessed cereals are mainly carbohydrates with some protein • Biological Value: amount of nitrogen derived from food protein that is used in the body to promote growth – it is related to the AA content of a protein • Foods that are high in BV are said to have all essential AA’s • Bioavailability: Degree to which nutrients are digested and absorbed by the body • Leavening Agents: Baking soda, baking powder and ammonium bicarbonate o These produce carbon dioxide 2.4 Fruits and Vegetables • Fruit: Ripened ovary of a plant • Vegetable: Plant that contains an edible portion (e.g. a leaf, shoot, stem, etc.) • Ripeness: Peak condition of flavour, colour and texture for a particular fruit • Maturity: Condition of a fruit when it is picked • Senescence: Decline of fruit/veg after harvest • Most fruits have a pH level of 4.6 • Infusion: Injection of fructose into pieces of fruit. The fructose replaces the water content with sugar. • To dehydrate fruits they must be in a very ripe state 2.5 Legumes and Nuts • Legumes are usually high in protein and low in fat • Oilseeds are higher fat legumes such as soybeans and sesame seeds • There are 3 types of peanuts: Spanish, Runner and Virginia • Soy flour is what is produced after a soy bean has been pressed for oil – very high in protein (the flour) • Some soy foods also contain isoflaves which may be effective in the treatment and prevention of cancer and other chronic disease • Soy protein concentrate and soy protein isolate are two forms of soy that are used to produce more soy foods – such as soy milk • The peanut is technically a member of the pea and bean family • Bitter almonds are poisonous because of the substance within them called amygdalin – this can be broken down to produce hydrogen cyanide 2.6 Meat and Meat Products • Fat content of red meat can range up to 40% and is a source of both saturated and unsaturated fats and cholesterols • Poultry contains less fat and cholesterols than red meats do • The Structure of Muscle Tissue: o Muscle is made up of muscle cells which are surrounded by sarcoplasm (a cytoplasmic substance) o Muscle fibres are made up of myofibrils which are thick, contractile proteins o There are thick proteins (myosin) and thing proteins (actin) o When a muscle contracts, these proteins form cross linkages which create bonds that produce a new protein – actinmyosin • Connective tissue is made up of a watery material and fat tissue • There are two types of connective proteins: Collagen (white connective tissue) and Elastin o The toughness of meat is directly related to the amount of collagen it contains – older animals have more collagen and therefore, provide tougher meat • An emulsion is a two-phase system in which one phase is dispersed into the other • The main components of emulsion are oil (a lipid) and water • There is oil-in-water – a lesser amount of oil is dispersed as tiny droplets in a greater amount of water – and water-in-oil • Without an emulsifying agent, emulsions separate into their component phases because they are thermodynamically unstable • Comminuted Meat Emulsions: Finely chopped meat mixed with water, fat, and sometimes additives • Some meat proteins are soluble and others are insoluble • Sausages are comminuted meat emulsions where the O/W emulsion is stuck in a gel formed by insoluble proteins and muscle fibres of the meat tissue and water 2.7 Seafood • Crustaceans contain significant amounts of cholesterol • Fish flesh is high in protein and minerals • Fish flesh is more perishable than other kinds of animal flesh due to a multitude of reasons: o Bacteria cover the outside of fish bodies and internally
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