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Chapter 7

Chapter 7

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Food Science
FOOD 2010
Massimo Marcone

FOOD 2010 CHAPTER 7 7.1 What is a food additive? - substance added to food - more useful definition is that it is a chemical or other substance that becomes part of a food product either intentionally or accidentally - most food additives are intentional additives - intentional additives: purposely added and includes things such as sugar, salt, corn syrup, baking soda, citric acid and vegetable coloring. - these must receive approval from the Food and Drug Administration before they can be used in foods. - indirect additives are contaminants - substances that accidentally get into foods during production, processing or packaging. - adulteration is the deliberate addition of cheap ingredients to a food to make it appear to be of high quality. The uses of Food Additives - additives are important in an industrial society because it helps keep food wholesome and appealing while en route to market and are key in maintaining the food qualities and characteristics consumers demand - Key uses for food additives - Maintain product consistency Certain ingredients such as emulsifiers, stabilizers, thickeners and anticaking agents help ensure consistent food texture and characteristics - improve or maintain nutritional value Nutrients in food can either be lacking or lost during processing. Cereals, milk, margarine and other foods can be enriched or fortified by additives such as Vitamin A and D, ascorbic acid, niacin, iron, riboflavin, thiamin and folic acid - maintain palpability and wholesomeness Foods naturally lose flavor and freshness due to aging and exposure to natural elements such as oxygen, bacteria and fungi. Preservatives such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydrotolulene (BHT), ascorbic acid, and sodium nitrate help to slow product spoilage and rancidity while maintaining taste - provide leavening or control acidity/alkalimity leavening agents enable cakes. biscuits and other backed goods to rise during baking. Certain additives modify the acidity and alkalinity of foods for proper flavor, taste and color. - enhance flavor or import desired color many spices and natural and synthetic flavors enhance the taste of foods while color additives enhance the appearance of certain foods to meet consumer expectations. - Principles or requirements that guide the application of each additive: - safety of a food additive for human consumption must never be in doubt. - a food additive must function in food systems in accordance with its stated function under specific conditions of use. AKA efficacy - a food additive must not significantly diminish the nutritional value of the food in which it is functioning, nor should it be used to compensate for improper manufacturing practices or inferior product characteristics in a way what would deceive the consumer - a food additive should be detectable by a defined method of analysis. Major types of food additives - classified by the FDA into more than two dozen groupings of substances based upon their functionality. Certain additives can have multiple functions. - anticaking and free-flowing agents substances that keep ingredients in a power form for ease of incorporation into formulations during product manufacture Ex. talc, silicates - antimicrobial agents act to inhibit growth of bacteria, yeasts, and molds and thus functions as preservatives - antioxidants act to inhibit the oxidation of fats and pigments, which would otherwise result in product rancidity and altered color - colorants, or food colors, are added to certain foods to offset color loss due to storage or processing of foods, or to correct for natural variations in food color - artificial colorants include certified FDA dues (water-soluble colorants available in a powder, liquid or paste form) and lakes (suspensions of organic colorants coated onto metallic salts). - curing agents for meats contain sodium nitrate, which helps retain the pink color of cured meats and acts as a preservative - dough strengtheners are substances used to improve the machinability of bread dough during processing. - emulsifiers keep fat globules dispersed in water or water droplets dispersed in fat. Examples are Lecithins, monoglycerides, and diglycerides. Distinct emulsifiers are emulsifying salts, which function to enhance natural emulsifier activity in food systems such as process cheese. - enzymes biological catalysts that occur naturally in foods, are used by the food industry for use as beneficial food additives - flavorings may be natural or synthetic and are added for flavor production or modification - flavor enhancers such as monosodium glutamate and flavor potentiator substances identified chemically as 5’- nucleotides are used to make foods taste more delicious (“umami effect”) - humectants substances that attract water within a food product, which may lower the products water activity. - leavening agents such as baking powder are used to enhance the leavening effect, rise, or “oven spring” of dough in baked products - nutritional additives are added boost nutrition intake and provide for a more balanced diet - enrichment denotes the addition of nutrients lost during processing in order to meet a specific standard for a food - fortification the addition of nutrients, either absent or present in insignificant amounts - nonnutritive sweeteners compounds that provide much greater sweetness intensity per amount when compared to sucrose - nutritive sweeteners are compounds that provide significant calories from carbs in addition to a level of sweetness intensity - oxidizing agents occur in food mainly as residuals from application as sanitizing agents of food processing equipment - pH control agents are acidulants, which lower food pH, and alkalis or alkaline compounds, which increase food pH - processing aids include not only acidulants and alkalis, but also buffers and phosphates - sequestrants act to combine with metal elements, such as copper and iron, which are active in oxidation reactions. - can also protect antioxidants to extend their effectiveness - stabilizers and thickeners combine with water in foods to increase product viscosity, to form gels and o prevent product crystallization - surface active agents or surfactants act as wetting agents, lubricants, dispersing agents, and emulsifiers, by affecting the surface tension of materials present in food systems. - added to reduce stickiness, promote mixing, improve baking properties, and either destabilize foams or promote foaming 1. 2. 7.2 Food laws and Regulations in the United States 3. - Code of Federal Regulations (CFR): a yearly codification of rules published in the Federal Register by agencies of the Department of Health and Human Services and the Department of Agriculture - proposed rule written whenever a change is needed in an agency’s regulations - has a 60 day comment period - proposed rules are developed to implement legislative requirements but not all rules are based on laws - may be developed to implement legislative requirements, to clarify a particular policy, or as a response to suggestions received by an agency - after the clearance process, it is published in the Federal register and the comment period begins. - each rule, proposed or final - has two parts - preamble: discusses the chance being made by the rule - regulatory text: describes how the CFR is being changed by the rule - finalized rule once the 60-day comment period is completed, comment from he public are reviewed and categorized based on the relevance of their support of the changes proposed in the rule - codifying the final rule into the CFR once a year, the Federal register codifies all changes made by interim and final rules during the year into a new revision of the CFR Early events and Legislation - Pure Food Congress event focused national attention on the growing movement to enact federal legislation against misbranding and adulteration of foods - Food and Drug Act of 1906 law prohibited interstate commerce in misbranded and adulterated food, beverages and drugs - Meat Inspection Act passed to regulate meat quality and safety. The 1938 FFDCA and Amendments - Federal Food, drug and Cosmetic act of 1938 basic modern food law which gave the FDA authority over food and food ingredients and defined requirements for truthful labeling of ingredients - standard of identity: a detailed listing of the type and quantity of ingredients and means of preparation Food additives Amendment of 1958. - Food additives amendment (FAA): requires FDA approval for the use of an additive prior to its inclusion in food - also requires manufacturer to prove an additives safety for the ways it would be used. -Two exempted groups of substances from additive regulation process: - prior sanctioned substances (sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate, which are additives used to preserve luncheon meats) - GRAS substances (Generally categorized as Safe): those whose use is generally recognized by experts as safe, based on their extensive history of use in food because 1958 or based on published scientific evidence. - color additives amendments: requires dyes used in foods, drugs, cosmetic and certain medical devices to be approved by the FDA prior to their marketing. - the Delany cause: no additive shall be deemed to be safe if it is found to induce cancer when ingested by man or animal , or its if found, after tests which are appropriate for the evaluation of the safety of food additives, to induce cancer in man or animal - developed a “zero-cancer-risk” standard for food additives Other legislation and Significant Regulatory Actions Processed Foods innovations - chemogastric revolution: foods that used new chemical ingredients and packaging, and they set the stage for future legislation concerning additives and manufacturing practices - Fair Packaging and Labeling Act passed o counter problems with underweighing of products. Each label was required to identify the product, the name and place of business of manufacturer, the net quantity of contents, and the net quantity of a serving when the number of servings is represented Pesticides and Toxicants - aflatoxin: made for following the outbreak of “turkey x disease”. - action level: is a level for contamination of a food, below which no court enforcement action is necessary - Cyclamates: alternative sweetener used in beverages, was banned as a food ingredient bec
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