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Chapter 6

Chapter 6- Food Chemistry 3, Colour, Flavour and Texture.docx

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Food Science
FOOD 2010
Massimo Marcone

Chapter 6: Food Chemistry 3, Colour, Flavour and Texture 6.1 Food Colour Chemistry -colour is a perception of a physical attribute of food arising from what the food reflects and absorbs -characterized by 3 things -Hue (the colour) -Chroma/Saturation (clarity and purity) -Intensity (range from lightness to darkness) -pigments are also called chromophoretic compounds -colour of red meat (see foods 2700 for deets) -myoglobin -metmyoglobin -oxymyoglobin -nitric oxide myoglobin 3 CLASSES FRUIT AND VEG PIGMENTS -phenolic-based pigments -betalins (betacyanins and beta-xanthins both found only in beets) -anthocyanins (purple, blue, red) -anthoxanthins (colourless or white than can become yellow) NB flavonoids are chemically related phytochemicals that include anthocyanins and anthoxanthins -carotenoids -fat-soluble -xanthophylls and carotenes are the 2 parts of this group -colour is red, orange and yellow -easily oxidated -see foods 2700 for more info if needed -chlorophylls -green in colour -fat soluble -can become chlorophyll + acid + heat + MG = pheophytin pheophytin + heat + CO C2 = 3yropheophytin chlorophyll + chlorophyllase (enzyme) = chlorophyllide 2+ chlorophyllide + acid + heat MG = Pheophorbide chlorophyllide heat + CO 2H =3pyropheophorbide -colorant = pigment used to impart colour to a food or beverage -FD&C Colorants -certified as safe by FDA for use in food, drugs and cosmetics. -all contain phenolic ring having double bonds and various functional groups -dyes = water soluble chemicals that are used to colour entire food products -lake = insoluble powder derived from dyes and used to colour the surface of foods or fat-based products, including chocolates. -Exempt Colorants -cochineal (grape skin extract) Chapter 6: Food Chemistry 3, Colour, Flavour and Texture -caramel (as not consistent products the carbs used to form are what is controlled. see table 6.6 for exact names, classes and uses of specific caramels) 6.2 Food Flavor Chemistry -flavor is property of food material and the receptor mechanisms of humans -to produce a taste the substance must be water soluble -pungency -sensation of spicy heat, due to specific chemicals from cruciferous veggies and chili peppers -causes warming sensation in the mouth and lips -endorphins are released, causing pleasure amongst pain -cooling sensation -due to methanol and its isomers causing a minty flavor and aroma -can also be due to sugar alcohols (alternative sweeteners see chap 3) -Process and Reaction Flavors ex: in baking of bread the Maillard reaction generates dicarbonyl compounds such as gloxal. These can react with amino acids through a series of steps called Strecker degradation to produce pyrazine. These contribute to flavor and aroma of bread -producing food flavors -process flavor substances are obtained by heating a variety of substances (including at least one nitrogen and a reducing sugar) -reaction technology can produce reaction flavors -reaction flavors are produced by chemical reactions under controlled conditions -top note is the predominant initial aroma or flavor characteristic for a substance -enzyme-produced flavors -most flavors can be produced by enzymology -enzymes responsible for flavor in tea, coffee, chocolate, cheese, and plant products -autolyzed yeast means that the yeast has been centrifuged to remove cell wall material in order to concentrate flavors -flavor enhancers -flavoring has a flavor of its own -fl
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