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Chapter 7

Chapter 7- Food Additives, Food Laws, and Dietary Supplements.docx

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Food Science
FOOD 2010
Massimo Marcone

Chapter 7: Food Additives, Food Laws, and Dietary Supplements 7.1 What is a Food Additive -Any substance added to food -2 types of additives -intentional additives (purposely added) -indirect additives ( substances that get into food during production, processing, or packaging. Must be kept to a minimal level) -Uses of food additives -Maintain Product Consistency (emulsifiers, stabilizers, thickeners) -Improve/Maintain Nutritional Value (products are enriched or fortified) -Maintain Palatability and Wholesomeness ( BHA, BHT, ascorbic acid, sodium nitrate. They slow product spoilage and rancidity while maintaining taste) -Provide Leavening or Control Acidity/Alkalinity -Enhance Flavour or Impart Desired Colour -Rules for Additives -New additives tested by FDA -Must function in accordance to specific conditions (efficacy) -Not significantly diminish nutritional value -Should be detectable by defined method of analysis -Major Types -Anticaking and Free-Flowing Agents (keep in powder format, EX: Silicates) -Antimicrobial Agents (inhibit yeasts, bacteria, molds EX: Salts) -Antioxidants (inhibit oxidation fats and pigments. EX: BHA, BHT) -Colorants (see notes chapter 6 for more) -Curing Agents (sodium nitrate, also a preservative) -Dough Strengtheners (improve the machinability of bread. EX: SSL, EMG, DATEM) -Emulsifiers ( Keep fats and liquids together EX: Lecithin) -Enzymes (biological catalysts EX: pectinase) -Flavourings (natural or synthetic added for flavour production or modification) -Humectants (attract water, lowering a lwvel EX: Glycerol) -Leavening Agents (let products rise. EX: baking powder) -Nutritional Additives (Enrichment: Re-add what was lost, Fortification : Adding new ones) -Nonnutritive Sweeteners (see chapter 3 notes) -Nutritive Sweeteners ( See chapter 3 notes) -Oxidizing Agents (residuals from application as sanitizing agents of processing equipment) -pH Control Agents (Acidulants : lower pH EX: citric acid Alkalis : increase pH EX: baking soda) -Processing Aids (acidulants, alkalis, buffers, phosphates) -Sequestrants (combine with metal elements to prevent off-flavours and odours EX citric acid) -Stabilizers and Thickeners (increase viscosity, ability to form gels, prevent crystallization) -Surface Active Agents (goal to reduce surface tension) Chapter 7: Food Ad
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