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Chapter 9

Chapter 9 - Understanding Fat, Sugar, Beverage, and Plant Product Processing.docx

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Food Science
FOOD 2010
Massimo Marcone

Chapter 9: Understanding Fat, Sugar, Beverage, and Plant Product Processing 9.1 Processing of Fats and Oils -processing = removal or extraction of fat or oil from its natural source -refining = removal of impurities from the extracted fat or oil -crude oil = subjected to a number of commercial refining processes designed to remove compounds that may contribute especially to flavor and color instability -oxidative stability, color and flavor improved with refining -RBD oil = crude oil that underwent refining, bleaching, deodorizing -solvent extraction steps -cleaning to remove dirt and debris -grinding the kernels -steaming (tempering or cooking of the seed "meat" -flaking the small pieces between flaking rolls -extracting the oil with solvent -separating the meal (marc) from the oil-solvent solution (miscella) -removing the solvent from both the miscella and the marc -production methods -rendering = heating of fatty meat scraps in water (allowing fat to melt + rise) -pressing = squeezing oil from oil seeds -solvent extraction = separation of oil from cracked seeds using nontoxic fat solvent -deodorization = application of steam heat in vacuum chamber to strip away odor-causing low molecular weight compounds from oil -degumming = first refining step for oils high in phospholipids -neutralization = removes fatty acids from a fat -bleaching = removal of colored substances from oil -hydrogenization = saturate double bonds, making oil more solid -winterizing = refrigeration treatment of oils for specific purpose -plasticizing = softening of a hard fat, changing its consistency -mono and diglyceride preparation = isolating the triglyceride derivatives for use as emulsifiers -processing of specific fats -fractionation (process by which milk fat yields butter fractions of varying melting points) it is used to produce a lower melting point butterfat -fractionation = milkfat is heated and melted during a dry crystallization process, and then cooled under controlled conditions. Generating easily separable solid and liquid phases. -interestification = removal of fatty acids from glycerol of triglycerides, and their subsequent recombination into numerous configurations -can affect melting point and crystallization behavior of product -can be used to lower calorie content -chemical and physical testing of fats -iodine value = measures the degree of unsaturation -peroxide value (PV) = measures liquid oxidation using iodine Chapter 9: Understanding Fat, Sugar, Beverage, and Plant Product Processing -acid value = measure of number of free fatty acids present in a fat (indicating if oxidative rancidity has occurred -saponification value = average molecular weight of the fatty acids in a fat -smoke point = temperature at which smoke emanates continuously from the surface of a lipid heated under standard conditions 9.2 Sugar Processing -cane sugar = sucrose product obtained from sugarcane and is generally produced in two stages because the sugar decomposes after harvesting the cane -processing produces 2 by-products (fiber and molasses) -extraction -goal : extract cane juice -countercurrent diffusing = cane is chopped, rolled, and forced against a countercurrent to produce a dilute juice -neutralization and clarification -juice is purified by addition of calcium hydroxide and heat (around BP of water) -inactivates enzymes and raise pH (to neutral) -then pumped into clarification vessel, which is a large heated tank in which clear juice flows off the upper part while process residue settles below -concentration and crystallization -clarified juice is pumped into evaporators, in which steam is used to concentrate the juice -concentrate is then evaporated under vacuum to achieve supersaturation -seed crystal is added -during crystallization a solid A and a mother liquid "A-molasses" is left, (which is then concentrated to make a B-variety, and the low-grade B molasses is concentrated to yield C sugar and final molasses, know as blackstrap) -separation and drying -crystals and mother liquor are separated via centrifugation -fine jet of water is sprayed on the sugar to reduce syrup coating on each crystal -sugar allowed to dry and cool and is placed in bulk storage -sugar refining -production of high-quality sugars from remelted raw cane sugars -produce range of products including white sugar cubes, powdered and granulated white sugar, and light and dark brown sugars -steps : washing (affined), dissolved (melted), clarified, decolorized, and crystallized -final product dried, packaged and stored 9.3 Beverage Processing -water beverages -drinking water = intended for consumption and sealed in bottles or other containers with no added ingredients, except optional antimicrobial agents Chapter 9: Understanding Fat, Sugar, Beverage, and Plant Product Processing -bottled water = natural mineral waters, carbonated waters, and sweetened, flavored waters -bottle water processing tries to ensure a safe product and preserve the properties ascribed to the water -ozone usually applied -soft drink beverages -non-alcoholic carbonated, or non-carbonated beverages containing a sweetening agent, edible acids, and natural or artificial flavors -water is superchlorinated and coagulated, to remove microorgs from water that goes into soft drinks -carbonation = saturation of water with carbon dioxide under pressure -sweetened with sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, fruit juice concentrates, synthetic sweeteners (for low cal) -special beverage categories -non carbonated soft drinks = same techniques as for carbonated (usually pasteurized instead of carbocation) -powdered soft drinks = blending flavoring (dry acids, gums, artificial color) -nutraceutical beverages = formulated to promote health aspects, or reduce the risk of certain disease 9.4 Processing of Cereal Grains -cereal = any grain used for foods -grain = small hard seed produced by plants that are grasses -milling depends on the grain (can be either wet or dry milling) -wheat milling -strong gluten flours have higher protein content for breadmaking - weak gluten forming flours are weak in protein fragile dough for biscuits and cake -semolina used for pasta result of milling certain hard grains -wheat flour processing series of rolling, sieves, and purifiers -corrugated rolls break wheat into coarse particles -broken wheat is sifted and directed through air currents that separate bran and middlings -reducing rolls decrease size of middlings into flour -breadmaking -3:1 flour-to-water ratio -patent flour used (low mineral content, 12% protein, devoid of impurities) -must be kneaded to produce gluten (do not over or under mix) -fermentation (by yeast used for rising) -natural enzymes present in dough become inactive at different temps -crust and crumb have different properties due to moisture levels -breakfast cereal -corn flakes -corn endosperm ( dry milling) Chapter 9: Understanding Fat, Sugar, Beverage, and Plant Product Processing -grits (cooking under steam pressure) -corn lumps 33% moisture (reduction in size, drying 65 C, tempering) -soft corn product 20% moisture (flaking) -soft flakes (toasting 225 C) -toasted hard flakes 3-5% moisture (vit and min enrichment) -nutritious dry toasted corn flakes -pasta processing -known
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