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FOOD 4310 (2)
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Discussion 4 Summary.docx

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Department
Food Science
Course
FOOD 4310
Professor
Keith Warriner
Semester
Winter

Description
Group 3 - Discussion 4 Summary In chocolate chip production, the HACCP team needs to identify all physical, biological, and chemical hazards at each processing step. For all of the hazards, control measures need to be established so each processing step will meet acceptable levels. Usually, a minimum acceptable level and a maximum acceptable level are established and a target level is set between this acceptability range for the product. Control measures can be determined by scientific means and should be documented. Employees should implement these control measures while they are working to prevent cross-contamination and reduce biological, chemical, and physical hazards to meet acceptable levels. Hazzards: Allergens  Product advantage: low moisture content. The water activity in the product is so low that it is likely not able to sustain the growth of bacteria.  Problem: Cross contamination. In order to ensure there is limited cross-contamination of allergens manufacturing facilities can have dedicated lines for different allergens. Also, it should have dedicated mixers and equipment for each line.  The non-allergen products should still have the 'may contain' label seeing as they are made close to each other and cannot be guaranteed to be allergy free.  Example: nuts are a common allergen which is often baked in cookies. Coincidentally, cookie production must involve, for example, facility organization/segregation and equipment designs to prevent allergens from touching other tools.  One Prevention method: stainless steel equipment. Advantages: can be cleaned with high- pressure hoses which thoroughly remove most debris. Raw Material  The raw materials that are used to bake the chocolate chip cookies (ie. flour) may contain certain contaminants, allergens, or even parasites.  The storage area in which the raw material is stored may also catalyze the severity of the unknown. Having the ingredients stored in a high moisture area or high temperature area may change the risk status of the ingredients.  If the facility makes products that contain allergens, allergens can get caught on the clothes of the workers as they walk around the plant leading to the spread of the allergen. The workers’ own personal hygiene also plays an important role in the quality of the final product. Packaging The packaging of chocolate chip cookies presents many types of hazards.  Chemical hazards include: cross contamination (food grade versus non-food grade) and controls over proper chemical usage.  Physical hazards include metal, glass, plastic, wood, or other debris getting into the final product.  Microbiological hazards include the pathogens present on the packaging. Poor air quality inside ovens leading to mould  As temperatures increase, so does humidity. If this is not properly maintained, there will be increased moisture and growth of undesired mould, which presents itself as a risk in the manufacturing process.  As a solution, the use of indirect heating and recirculating air technologies helps with controlling hum
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