Group 3 - Discussion 4 Summary
In chocolate chip production, the HACCP team needs to identify all physical, biological, and
chemical hazards at each processing step. For all of the hazards, control measures need to be
established so each processing step will meet acceptable levels. Usually, a minimum acceptable level
and a maximum acceptable level are established and a target level is set between this acceptability
range for the product. Control measures can be determined by scientific means and should be
documented. Employees should implement these control measures while they are working to prevent
cross-contamination and reduce biological, chemical, and physical hazards to meet acceptable levels.
Product advantage: low moisture content. The water activity in the product is so low that it is
likely not able to sustain the growth of bacteria.
Problem: Cross contamination. In order to ensure there is limited cross-contamination of
allergens manufacturing facilities can have dedicated lines for different allergens. Also, it should
have dedicated mixers and equipment for each line.
The non-allergen products should still have the 'may contain' label seeing as they are made
close to each other and cannot be guaranteed to be allergy free.
Example: nuts are a common allergen which is often baked in cookies. Coincidentally, cookie
production must involve, for example, facility organization/segregation and equipment designs
to prevent allergens from touching other tools.
One Prevention method: stainless steel equipment. Advantages: can be cleaned with high-
pressure hoses which thoroughly remove most debris.
The raw materials that are used to bake the chocolate chip cookies (ie. flour) may contain
certain contaminants, allergens, or even parasites.
The storage area in which the raw material is stored may also catalyze the severity of the
unknown. Having the ingredients stored in a high moisture area or high temperature area may
change the risk status of the ingredients.
If the facility makes products that contain allergens, allergens can get caught on the clothes of
the workers as they walk around the plant leading to the spread of the allergen. The workers’
own personal hygiene also plays an important role in the quality of the final product.
The packaging of chocolate chip cookies presents many types of hazards. Chemical hazards include: cross contamination (food grade versus non-food grade) and controls
over proper chemical usage.
Physical hazards include metal, glass, plastic, wood, or other debris getting into the final
Microbiological hazards include the pathogens present on the packaging.
Poor air quality inside ovens leading to mould
As temperatures increase, so does humidity. If this is not properly maintained, there will be
increased moisture and growth of undesired mould, which presents itself as a risk in the
As a solution, the use of indirect heating and recirculating air technologies helps with controlling