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Chapter 7

FOOD 2010 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Aspartame, Viscosity, Sewage Sludge

Food Science
Course Code
FOOD 2010
Massimo Marcone

of 13
Chapter 7 Food additives, Food Laws and Dietary Supplements
7.1 What is a food additive?
Read section 7.1 to learn how additives are defined and why additives are used
Food additive-chemical or other substances that becomes a part of a food product
either intentionally or accidentally. According to Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act
(FFDCA) a food additive refers to any substance used in the production, processing,
treatment, packaging, transportation or storage of food.
oIntentional additive - purposely added
Must be approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) before used
Eg. Sugar, salt, corn syrup, baking soda
oIndirect additives - contaminants which are substances that accidentally get into
food product during production, processing, packaging
Adulteration- adding of cheap ingredients to food to make it appear to be
of high quality. This is illegal in the US
Eg. Antibiotics, hair, insects
The Uses of Food Additives
To maintain product consistency
To improve or maintain nutritional value
To maintain palatability and wholesomeness
To provide leavening or control acidity/alkalinity
To enhance flavour or impart desired colour
oGuiding principles
The safety of food additive for human consumption must never be in
Efficacy- Must function in food systems in accordance with its stated
Do not significantly diminish the nutritional value of the food or
compensate for improper manufacturing practices
Should be detectable by a defined method of analysis
The Major types of Food Additives
oAnticaking and free flowing agents - keep ingredients in a powdered form (eg.
silicates and talc)
oAntimicrobial agents - inhibits the growth of bacteria, yeast and function as a
preservative (eg. Sodium benzoate, calcium propanoate)
oAntioxidants - inhibit the oxidation of fats and pigments (eg. BHA, BHT,
oColorants - offset color loss due to storage or processing foods
Color additive certification- assures the safety, quality, consistency and
strength of a color additive prior to its use in foods.
oCuring agents - helps retain the pink colour f cured meats, also acts as a
preservative (eg. sodium nitrate)
oDough Strengthener- improve the machinability of bread dough during
processing (eg. SSL, DATEM)
oEmulsifiers - keep fat globules dispersed in water or water droplets dispersed in
fat (eg. Lecithin, Monoglycerides)
Emulsifying salts - enhances natural emulsifier activity in food (eg.
Potassium phosphates, citrates)
oEnzymes - biological catalyst that occur naturally in foods (eg Pectinase, glucose
oFlavouring - for flavour production or modification (eg. Amyl acetate)
Flavor enhancers - makes food more delicious (eg. MSG)
oHumectants - attract water within a food product, lower water activity (eg. Sorbitol,
oLeavening agents - enhances leavening effect or rise in baked products (eg.
Baking powder)
oNutritional additives - boosts nutrient intake and provide a more balanced diet
Enrichment - addition of nutrients lost in the processing
Fortification - addition of nutrients either absent or present
oNonnutritive sweeteners - provide greater sweetness intensity per amount when
compared to sucrose (eg. Aspartame)
oNutritive sweeteners - provide significant calories from carbohydrates +
sweetness (eg. Sucrose, fructose)
oOxidizing agents - residuals from application as sanitizing agents of food
processing equipment that can also act as bleaching agents (eg. Hydrogen
opH control agents - are acidulants which raise pH (eg. Tartaric acid) and alkaline
compounds which lower pH (eg. NaOH)
oprocessing aids - include ph agents, buffers which help maintain pH (eg citrate,
citric acids) and phosphates which increase water holding capacity and stabalize
emulsions (eg. Polyphosphates)
oSequestrants - combine with metal elements to inhibit the development of off
flavours and odours due to oxidation (eg. Citric acids, EDTA)
oStabilizers and thickeners - combine with water in foods to increase product
viscosity (eg. Starch, pectin, gum)
oSurface active agents - wetting agents, lubricants to reduce stickiness, promote
mixing, improve baking properties (eg. Lecithin, Tweens)
7.2 Food laws and regulations in the United States
Skim through the first two pages of section 7.2 which explains how laws and regulations are
passed in the United States. An explanation of the process in Canada is provided on page 6 in
Unit 2 of the manual. You will not be asked how laws and regulations are made. However, read
the remainder of section 7.2
Differentiating Laws and Regulations
oAct- The bill approved by both houses of congress (senate and house
representative) and signed into law by the president
oDirective- internally written instructions regarding policy and procedure within an
oLaw- an act of congress that has been signed by the president
oOrdinance- law enacted by local legislative process
oRegulation- Administrative code or rule issued by governmental agencies;
regulations are implemented to enforce statutes