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Chapter 5

FOOD 2010 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Food Preservation, Food Microbiology, Pathogenic Bacteria


Department
Food Science
Course Code
FOOD 2010
Professor
Massimo Marcone
Chapter
5

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FOOD 2010 Unit 5 Notes
Textbook Pages 199-207 Chapter 13 – Fermentation, Microorganisms, and Biotechnology
Fermentation allows the growth of microoganisms in order to produce a stable product
Examples include beer, pickles, olives, bread, cheese, coffee, soy sauce, and wine
Fermentations
Oldest form of food preservation
Breakdown of carbohydrate materials by bacteria and yeast under anaerobic (no oxygen)
conditions.
Fermentation can protect foods against microbial degradation
Follows these general reactions: glucose-> pyruvic acid -> acetaldehyde + CO2-> alcohol
Starter Culture- concentrated # of the organisms desired to start the fermentation.
Ensures the proper organisms grow
Benefits
Main benefit is preserving the product
Can add flavour to wine, remove/alter flavours in soya
Can be more nutritious b/c the organisms produce vitamins and growth factors
Can enzymatically split polymers like cellulose into simple sugars that are digestible by
humans
Control
Fermentation can be controlled by pH, salt content, and temperature.
Salt in solution is called Brine
Temperature affects the final acid concentration and the time it takes to reach different
acidities.
Uses of Fermentation
Produces dairy products, bread, pickles, processed meats, vinegar, wine, and beer.
Brewing- 4 steps involved; mashing, boiling, fermentation, and aging.
Microorganisms are sometimes called Single-Celled Protein (SCP)
Chapter 8 Pages 132-138
Post-Slaughter Biochemical Changes
Rigor Mortis-essential process in the conversion of live muscle to meat. (the muscles
become very hard or stiff). After time, muscle fibers begin to relax (called resolution of
rigor). The muscle stage changes the tenderness of the meat
Principles of Food Preservation
Heat- bacteria is killed between 180-200 degrees F, spores need higher
Cold- under 50 degrees F, growth of organisms slow down. Freezing may kill some but
not all microorganisms
Drying- reduces water activity, because microorganisms contain 80% moisture,
dehydrating the foods can dehydrate the microorganisms.
Acid- the more acid, the less heat required to sterilize it
CourseLink Information – Food Microbiology and Fermentation
What is food spoilage?
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
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