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Chapter 6

FOOD 2010 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Maillard Reaction, Pheophytin, Federal Food, Drug, And Cosmetic Act


Department
Food Science
Course Code
FOOD 2010
Professor
Massimo Marcone
Chapter
6

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Chapter 6: Food Chemistry 3, Colour, Flavour and Texture
6.1 Food Colour Chemistry
-colour is a perception of a physical attribute of food arising from what the food
reflects and absorbs
-characterized by 3 things
-Hue (the colour)
-Chroma/Saturation (clarity and purity)
-Intensity (range from lightness to darkness)
-pigments are also called chromophoretic compounds
-colour of red meat (see foods 2700 for deets)
-myoglobin
-metmyoglobin
-oxymyoglobin
-nitric oxide myoglobin
3 CLASSES FRUIT AND VEG PIGMENTS
-phenolic-based pigments
-betalins (betacyanins and beta-xanthins both found only in beets)
-anthocyanins (purple, blue, red)
-anthoxanthins (colourless or white than can become yellow)
NB flavonoids are chemically related phytochemicals that include
anthocyanins and anthoxanthins
-carotenoids
-fat-soluble
-xanthophylls and carotenes are the 2 parts of this group
-colour is red, orange and yellow
-easily oxidated
-see foods 2700 for more info if needed
-chlorophylls
-green in colour
-fat soluble
-can become
chlorophyll + acid + heat + MG2+ = pheophytin
pheophytin + heat + CO2CH3 = pyropheophytin
chlorophyll + chlorophyllase (enzyme) = chlorophyllide
chlorophyllide + acid + heat MG2+ = Pheophorbide
chlorophyllide heat + CO2CH3 = pyropheophorbide
-colorant = pigment used to impart colour to a food or beverage
-FD&C Colorants
-certified as safe by FDA for use in food, drugs and cosmetics.
-all contain phenolic ring having double bonds and various functional groups
-dyes = water soluble chemicals that are used to colour entire food products
-lake = insoluble powder derived from dyes and used to colour the surface of
foods or fat-based products, including chocolates.
-Exempt Colorants
-cochineal (grape skin extract)
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