FOOD 2010 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Maillard Reaction, Pheophytin, Federal Food, Drug, And Cosmetic Act

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Chapter 6: Food Chemistry 3, Colour, Flavour and Texture
6.1 Food Colour Chemistry
-colour is a perception of a physical attribute of food arising from what the food
reflects and absorbs
-characterized by 3 things
-Hue (the colour)
-Chroma/Saturation (clarity and purity)
-Intensity (range from lightness to darkness)
-pigments are also called chromophoretic compounds
-colour of red meat (see foods 2700 for deets)
-myoglobin
-metmyoglobin
-oxymyoglobin
-nitric oxide myoglobin
3 CLASSES FRUIT AND VEG PIGMENTS
-phenolic-based pigments
-betalins (betacyanins and beta-xanthins both found only in beets)
-anthocyanins (purple, blue, red)
-anthoxanthins (colourless or white than can become yellow)
NB flavonoids are chemically related phytochemicals that include
anthocyanins and anthoxanthins
-carotenoids
-fat-soluble
-xanthophylls and carotenes are the 2 parts of this group
-colour is red, orange and yellow
-easily oxidated
-see foods 2700 for more info if needed
-chlorophylls
-green in colour
-fat soluble
-can become
chlorophyll + acid + heat + MG2+ = pheophytin
pheophytin + heat + CO2CH3 = pyropheophytin
chlorophyll + chlorophyllase (enzyme) = chlorophyllide
chlorophyllide + acid + heat MG2+ = Pheophorbide
chlorophyllide heat + CO2CH3 = pyropheophorbide
-colorant = pigment used to impart colour to a food or beverage
-FD&C Colorants
-certified as safe by FDA for use in food, drugs and cosmetics.
-all contain phenolic ring having double bonds and various functional groups
-dyes = water soluble chemicals that are used to colour entire food products
-lake = insoluble powder derived from dyes and used to colour the surface of
foods or fat-based products, including chocolates.
-Exempt Colorants
-cochineal (grape skin extract)
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Document Summary

Betalins (betacyanins and beta-xanthins both found only in beets) Anthoxanthins (colourless or white than can become yellow) Nb flavonoids are chemically related phytochemicals that include anthocyanins and anthoxanthins. Colour is a perception of a physical attribute of food arising from what the food reflects and absorbs. Colour of red meat (see foods 2700 for deets) Chlorophylls chlorophyll + acid + heat + mg2+ = pheophytin pheophytin + heat + co2ch3 = pyropheophytin chlorophyll + chlorophyllase (enzyme) = chlorophyllide chlorophyllide + acid + heat mg2+ = pheophorbide chlorophyllide heat + co2ch3 = pyropheophorbide. Colorant = pigment used to impart colour to a food or beverage. Xanthophylls and carotenes are the 2 parts of this group. See foods 2700 for more info if needed. Certified as safe by fda for use in food, drugs and cosmetics. All contain phenolic ring having double bonds and various functional groups. Dyes = water soluble chemicals that are used to colour entire food products.

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