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Chapter 7

FOOD 2010 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Baking Powder, Sodium Bicarbonate, Sodium Nitrate

Food Science
Course Code
FOOD 2010
Massimo Marcone

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Chapter 7: Food Additives, Food Laws, and Dietary Supplements
7.1 What is a Food Additive
-Any substance added to food
-2 types of additives
-intentional additives (purposely added)
-indirect additives ( substances that get into food during production,
processing, or packaging. Must be kept to a minimal level)
-Uses of food additives
-Maintain Product Consistency (emulsifiers, stabilizers, thickeners)
-Improve/Maintain Nutritional Value (products are enriched or fortified)
-Maintain Palatability and Wholesomeness ( BHA, BHT, ascorbic acid, sodium
nitrate. They slow product spoilage and rancidity while maintaining taste)
-Provide Leavening or Control Acidity/Alkalinity
-Enhance Flavour or Impart Desired Colour
-Rules for Additives
-New additives tested by FDA
-Must function in accordance to specific conditions (efficacy)
-Not significantly diminish nutritional value
-Should be detectable by defined method of analysis
-Major Types
-Anticaking and Free-Flowing Agents (keep in powder format, EX: Silicates)
-Antimicrobial Agents (inhibit yeasts, bacteria, molds EX: Salts)
-Antioxidants (inhibit oxidation fats and pigments. EX: BHA, BHT)
-Colorants (see notes chapter 6 for more)
-Curing Agents (sodium nitrate, also a preservative)
-Dough Strengtheners (improve the machinability of bread. EX: SSL, EMG, DATEM)
-Emulsifiers ( Keep fats and liquids together EX: Lecithin)
-Enzymes (biological catalysts EX: pectinase)
-Flavourings (natural or synthetic added for flavour production or modification)
-Humectants (attract water, lowering aw level EX: Glycerol)
-Leavening Agents (let products rise. EX: baking powder)
-Nutritional Additives (Enrichment: Re-add what was lost, Fortification : Adding new ones)
-Nonnutritive Sweeteners (see chapter 3 notes)
-Nutritive Sweeteners ( See chapter 3 notes)
-Oxidizing Agents (residuals from application as sanitizing agents of processing equipment)
-pH Control Agents (Acidulants : lower pH EX: citric acid Alkalis : increase pH EX: baking soda)
-Processing Aids (acidulants, alkalis, buffers, phosphates)
-Sequestrants (combine with metal elements to prevent off-flavours and odours EX citric acid)
-Stabilizers and Thickeners (increase viscosity, ability to form gels, prevent crystallization)
-Surface Active Agents (goal to reduce surface tension)
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