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Chapter 9

FOOD 2010 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Corn Flakes, Corn Syrup, Rock Candy

Food Science
Course Code
FOOD 2010
Massimo Marcone

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Chapter 9: Understanding Fat, Sugar, Beverage, and Plant Product
9.1 Processing of Fats and Oils
-processing = removal or extraction of fat or oil from its natural source
-refining = removal of impurities from the extracted fat or oil
-crude oil = subjected to a number of commercial refining processes designed to
remove compounds that may contribute especially to flavor and color instability
-oxidative stability, color and flavor improved with refining
-RBD oil = crude oil that underwent refining, bleaching, deodorizing
-solvent extraction steps
-cleaning to remove dirt and debris
-grinding the kernels
-steaming (tempering or cooking of the seed "meat"
-flaking the small pieces between flaking rolls
-extracting the oil with solvent
-separating the meal (marc) from the oil-solvent solution (miscella)
-removing the solvent from both the miscella and the marc
-production methods
-rendering = heating of fatty meat scraps in water (allowing fat to melt + rise)
-pressing = squeezing oil from oil seeds
-solvent extraction = separation of oil from cracked seeds using nontoxic fat
-deodorization = application of steam heat in vacuum chamber to strip away
odor-causing low molecular weight compounds from oil
-degumming = first refining step for oils high in phospholipids
-neutralization = removes fatty acids from a fat
-bleaching = removal of colored substances from oil
-hydrogenization = saturate double bonds, making oil more solid
-winterizing = refrigeration treatment of oils for specific purpose
-plasticizing = softening of a hard fat, changing its consistency
-mono and diglyceride preparation = isolating the triglyceride derivatives for use as
-processing of specific fats
-fractionation (process by which milk fat yields butter fractions of varying
melting points) it is used to produce a lower melting point butterfat
-fractionation = milkfat is heated and melted during a dry crystallization
process, and then cooled under controlled conditions. Generating easily
separable solid and liquid phases.
-interestification = removal of fatty acids from glycerol of triglycerides, and their
subsequent recombination into numerous configurations
-can affect melting point and crystallization behavior of product
-can be used to lower calorie content
-chemical and physical testing of fats
-iodine value = measures the degree of unsaturation
-peroxide value (PV) = measures liquid oxidation using iodine

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Chapter 9: Understanding Fat, Sugar, Beverage, and Plant Product
-acid value = measure of number of free fatty acids present in a fat (indicating if
oxidative rancidity has occurred
-saponification value = average molecular weight of the fatty acids in a fat
-smoke point = temperature at which smoke emanates continuously from the
surface of a lipid heated under standard conditions
9.2 Sugar Processing
-cane sugar = sucrose product obtained from sugarcane and is generally produced in
two stages because the sugar decomposes after harvesting the cane
-processing produces 2 by-products (fiber and molasses)
-goal : extract cane juice
-countercurrent diffusing = cane is chopped, rolled, and forced against a
countercurrent to produce a dilute juice
-neutralization and clarification
-juice is purified by addition of calcium hydroxide and heat (around BP of water)
-inactivates enzymes and raise pH (to neutral)
-then pumped into clarification vessel, which is a large heated tank in which
clear juice flows off the upper part while process residue settles below
-concentration and crystallization
-clarified juice is pumped into evaporators, in which steam is used to
concentrate the juice
-concentrate is then evaporated under vacuum to achieve supersaturation
-seed crystal is added
-during crystallization a solid A and a mother liquid "A-molasses" is left, (which
is then concentrated to make a B-variety, and the low-grade B molasses is
concentrated to yield C sugar and final molasses, know as blackstrap)
-separation and drying
-crystals and mother liquor are separated via centrifugation
-fine jet of water is sprayed on the sugar to reduce syrup coating on each crystal
-sugar allowed to dry and cool and is placed in bulk storage
-sugar refining
-production of high-quality sugars from remelted raw cane sugars
-produce range of products including white sugar cubes, powdered and
granulated white sugar, and light and dark brown sugars
-steps : washing (affined), dissolved (melted), clarified, decolorized, and
-final product dried, packaged and stored
9.3 Beverage Processing
-water beverages
-drinking water = intended for consumption and sealed in bottles or other
containers with no added ingredients, except optional antimicrobial agents
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