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Chapter 5

FRHD 1010 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Childhood Obesity, Prefrontal Cortex, Harm Reduction

Family Relations and Human Development
Course Code
FRHD 1010
Susan Chuang

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Body Changes
Growth Patterns
As you grow the centre of gravity moves from the chest to the belly
Increases in weight and height accompany this growth. Over each year of early childhood, well-nourished children
gain about 2kg and grow about 7cm.
By age 6, the average child in a developed nation:
-weights between 18-22kg
-Is at least 100cm tall
-Has adult like body proportions
Nutritional Challenges
Nutrition at this age is very important for brain development
Young children need high fat diets
Up until the age of 2, abot 50% of the total calories should be dedicated to fait. After 2 this number should be
decreased to 30%
The cultural practice of enourgaing to eat has turned from protective to destructuce
Obesity in Canada, noted that childhood obesity has been proven to increase the risk of obesity among adults,
which in turn can lead to the early development of serious medical condtions such as type 2 diabetes, heart
disease and high blood pressure
34% of amercians were obese compared to 24% in Canada
They are increasing
Childhood obesity seems to have dangerous effects on a persons physical, emotional and social well being for
years to come. Heart disease and diabetes are becoming epidemic as overweight children become overweight
Nutritional Deficiencies
In developing nations, the lack of micronutrients is often serve due to a lack of variety of healthy foods.
Just right: The tendency of children to insist on having tings done in particular way. This can include clothes, food,
bedtime routines and so on
After 5, rigidity fades
Oral health: Health Canada notes that breast milk and fruit juice can also lead to tooth decay in young children
since the sugars will combine to create plaque
**read eliminating lead** pg 180
The Canadian society pointed out that death rates from unintentional injuries among children and teens are 3 to 4
times higher in Aboriginal communities than elsewhere
There are 6 recommendations to reduce the number of deaths among Aboriginal children
1. Focus on surveillance
2. improve education
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3. Strengthen advocacy: cooperate among federal, provincial and territorial government in developing a
national injury prevention strategy
4. Reduce barriers
5. Evaluate initiatives
6. Provide resources
Injury control (or harm reduction): Practices that are aimed at anticipating, controlling and preventing dangerous
activities; these practices reflect the beliefs that accidents are not ranfom and that injuries can be made less
harmful if proper controls are in place
Harm Reduction
Three levels of harm reduction apply to every childhood health and safety issue
(1) Primary prevention: actions that change overall background conditions to prevent some unwanted event
or circumstance, such as injury, disease or abuse (universal immunization, and less pollution are examples
of primary prevention
(2) Secondary prevention: Is more epecific, averting harm in high risk situations or for vulnerable individual.
For instance, for children who are genetically predisposed to obesity, secondary precention might mean
exlysie breastfeeding for 6 months, no soft drinks or sweets in the kitchen for nayone, and frequently play
(3) Tertiary Prevention: begins after harm has occurred, limiting the potential damage. For example, if a child
falls and breaks an arm, a speedy ambulance and a sturdy cast are tertiary prevention
Tertiary prevention is most visible, but primary precnetion is most effective.
Key Points:
Young children continue to grow and develop motor skills, eating and playing actively
-Hazards include eating too much of the wrong foods, environmental chemicals that are linked to diabetes and
other health problems later on , and food allergies
-Young children natural energy and sudden curiosity makes them vulnerable to injury
-Primary and secondary prevention of harm begin long before injury, while restrictions on lead and other
pollutants (primary) and measures to reduce harm to young children (secondary)
The Brain
Those funcitons that distinguish us from apes begin in infancy but develop after age 3, enabling quicker, better
coordinated and more reflective thought
2-6- neurological increases are notable in the cortex region where planning, thinking, social awareness and
language occur.
Prefrontal cortex: planning, prioritizing and reflection occurs there
Speed of Thought
Mylelination: the process by which axons become coated with myelin, a fatty substance that dpeeds the
transmission of nerve impulses from neuron to neuron
Seed of thought from axon to neuron becomes pivotal when several thoughts and actions must occur in rapid
Preservation: the tendency to preserve in, or stick to, one thought or action for a long time (prefrontal cortex)
Connection Hemispheres
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