FRHD 1010 Chapter Notes - Chapter 15: Resting Metabolic Rate, Basal Metabolic Rate, Prostate Cancer

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Published on 1 Dec 2011
School
University of Guelph
Department
Family Relations and Human Development
Course
FRHD 1010
Chapter 15: Middle Adulthood – Physical and Cognitive Development
Some theorists view middle age as a time of peak performance, whereas others portray it
as a time of crisis or decline. Middle age 50-65
Did you know:
1. Canadians are proud of their health care system.
a. Reduced access and lengthy wait times make it clear that we need to focus
on our health care system if we wish to protect it.
2. Sexuality continues to be an important part of a middle-aged woman’s life.
a. Some women feel liberated because of the separation of sex from
reproduction.
3. Sexual dysfunctions are not rare.
a. According to some studies, sexual dysfunctions are actually common.
4. The average IQ score of a nation may increase as a reflection of social changes.
a. IQ scores in Canada have actually risen over the past couple of
generations.
5. Scores on the verbal subtests of standardized intelligence tests can increase for a
lifetime.
a. This is true and is evidence that an old dog can learn new tricks.
6. Not all types of memory functioning decline in middle adulthood.
7. Creativity continues well into middle adulthood.
L01: Describe trends in physical development in middle adulthood
Physical Development: interindividual variability – no two people age in the same way
or at the same rate; physiological aging is defined by changes in the body’s integumenary
system, may well be unavoidable
Skin and Hair
Production of melanin decreases – pigment responsible for hair colour
Wrinkling, grey hair
Skins loses elasticity because it’s producing fewer proteins
Fewer keratinocytes produced – skin dyer and more brittle
Sensory Functioning
Vision – presbyopia – loss of elasticity in the lens; makes it harder to focus on,
accommodate nearby objects/fine print
Reaction Time
Response time increases with age, mainly because of changes in the nervous
system; age 25 or so we begin to lose neurons which are responsible for sensing
signals such as sights and sounds and for coordinating our muscular responses
Lung Capacity
Lung tissue stiffens with age, limiting capacity to expand; exercise can help slow
down the process
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Lean-Body Mass and Body Fat
Beginning at age 20, we lose nearly 7 lbs of lean-body mass with each decade;
accelerates after 45. fat replaces lean-body mass (which includes muscle)
Muscle Strength
Loss of muscle reduces strength; change is gradual, exercise can compensate but
not re-achieve athleticism
Metabolism
Is the rate at which the body processes or ‘burns’ food to produce energy
Resting metabolic rate – basal metabolic rate (BMR) declines as we age
Fatty tissue burns fewer calories than muscle
Bone Density
Begins to lose density and strength at 40
Aerobic Capacity
Cardiovascular system becomes less efficient, declines as less oxygen is taken
into lungs and heart pumps less blood; exercise can help
Blood-sugar Tolerance
Energy from glucose supports cell activities and maintains body temperature
Tissues in our body become less capable of taking up glucose from bloodstream;
body tissues lose sensitivity to insulin, pancreas must produce more insulin
L02: Discuss the major health concerns of middle adulthood, including cancer and
heart disease
Health: Ages 40-65 is better than ever; vaccinations; preventive health care; advanced
knowledge of curing and treating illness. Diet, exercise and new knowledge in how to
care for ourselves.
Leading Causes of Death
Cancer, heart disease, accidents (some of which are preventable)
Health – Age 45-54 55-64
Cancer 119.0 333.4
Heart diseases 90.2 218.8
Accidents 40.7 33.2
Chronic liver diseases 18.0 22.6
Suicide 16.6 13.8
Strokes & other cerebrovascular disease 14.9 34.3
Diabetes 13.4 37.1
Chronic respiratory disease 8.4 40.4
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Document Summary

Chapter 15: middle adulthood physical and cognitive development. Some theorists view middle age as a time of peak performance, whereas others portray it as a time of crisis or decline. L01: describe trends in physical development in middle adulthood. Physical development: interindividual variability no two people age in the same way or at the same rate; physiological aging is defined by changes in the body"s integumenary system, may well be unavoidable. Skin and hair: production of melanin decreases pigment responsible for hair colour, wrinkling, grey hair, skins loses elasticity because it"s producing fewer proteins, fewer keratinocytes produced skin dyer and more brittle. Sensory functioning: vision presbyopia loss of elasticity in the lens; makes it harder to focus on, accommodate nearby objects/fine print. Lung capacity down the process: lung tissue stiffens with age, limiting capacity to expand; exercise can help slow.

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