FRHD 1010 Chapter Notes - Chapter 17: Urinary Urgency, Sleep Disorder, Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
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Chapter 17: Late Adulthood – Physical and Cognitive Development
Did you know:
1. Canadians have a higher life expectancy than our neighbours in the USA.
a. The difference is likely due largely to the differences in our health care
2. In historical times, aging was viewed so positively that men often claimed to be
older than they actually were.
a. Maturity was considered a mark of prestige but asking job applicants their
age is illegal in Canada.
3. Age-related sexual changes occur more gradually for men.
a. Unlike many women’s changes, which are related to menopause, men’s
changes are not clearly related to one biological event.
4. Most older adults remain living independently.
a. More than 2 out of 3 adults over the age of 65 live in their own homes.
5. Medication issues are common in old age.
a. Medication issues can be confused for signs of aging
L01: Discuss physical development in late adulthood
Physical development: In 1900, only 1 person in 25 was over the age of 65. Today, that
figure has more than tripled, to 1 in 8 of us. By mid-century, more than 1 in 5 North
Americans will be 65 or older. By 2050, we expect the percentage of North Americans
over the age of 75 will have doubled. To put these numbers in historical context,
consider that through virtually all of human history, until the beginning of the 19th
century, only a small fraction of humans lived to the age of 50.
Longevity and life expectancy
•Life span or longevity – length of time one can live under the best circumstances;
depends on genetics and environment; people can live to 115.
•Life expectancy – number of years a person in a given population group can
expect to live
oEuropean American 100 years ago born in USA – 47 years
oAfrican American – 35.5 years
•Life expectancy in the past – german measles, smallpox, diphtheria –
controlled/eradicated now; water supplies, diet, health care
•Longevity gap between genders is narrowing; gap exists because women have
estrogen that offers some protection against heart disease; men likely to die of
accidents, cirrhosis, strokes, homicide, suicide, AIDS, cancer – more unhealthy
•Men are more reluctant o visit doctors and talk about health concerns
Canada 1920-1922: Males – 59; Females – 61
Canada 1930-1932: M60; F62
Canada 1940-1942: M63; F66
Canada 1950-1952: M66; F71
Canada 1960-1962: M68; F74
Canada 1970-1972: M69; F76
Canada 1980-1982: M72; F79
Canada 1990-1992: M75; F81
Canada 2000-2002: M77; F82
2005-2007 NF: M78; F83
2005-2007 PEI: M76; F81
2005-2007 NS: M77; F82
2005-2007 NB: M77; F83
2005-2007 QC: M78; F83
2005-2007 ON: M79; F83
2005-2007 MB: M77; F82
2005-2007 SK: M77; F82
2005-2007 AB: M78; F83
2005-2007 BC: M79; F84
Physical and social changes
•Physical peak in our 20s, biological functions begin to decline
•Newbies are now old guard; newlyweds now celebrating silver/golden
•Aging can bring greater harmony and integration in our personalities; need to
learn to adapt to changes in mental skills and abilities
•Mature people used to hold greater prestige
•Ageism – prejudice against people because of their age
•Changes in Sensory Functioning
oVision: lenses of the eyes become brittle beginning in mid-age.
Cataracts: cloud lenses of the eye; glaucoma leads to tunnel
oHearing: presbycusis – age-related hearing loss
oTaste and smell become less acute
oBone Density – begin to lose density in mid-adulthood; osteoporosis
disorder where bones lose so much calcium that they are prone to
breakage; shorten, deform posture, men and women are at risk; men have
larger bone mass
•Need about 7 hours of sleep per night
•Disorders: insomnia, sleep apnea – stop breathing during the night, causes one to
waken, can be more than a sleep problem, linked to heart attacks and stroke
•Sleep problems symptomize psychological disorders – depression, anxiety,
•Men with enlarged prostate glands need to urinate more causing one to waken
•Other causes of lack of sleep – loneliness
•Medications can help with insomnia; keeping regular sleep schedule, calming
worries, relaxation techniques, breathing, surgery for sleep apnea or nose mask