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Chapter 9

FRHD 1010 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Methylphenidate, Dyslexia, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder


Department
Family Relations and Human Development
Course Code
FRHD 1010
Professor
Triciavan Rhijn
Chapter
9

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Human Development: Chapter 9 – Middle Childhood: Physical and Cognitive Development
Did you know:
D1 – “Baby fat” in early childhood can remain a lifelong struggle.
> Statistically, most overweight children become overweight adults.
D2 – Chemical food additives are not a cause of hyperactivity.
> Though in the 1970s a widely held view was that ADHD was related to food additives,
researchers now generally agree that food colouring and preservatives do not cause ADHD.
D3 – Stimulants are often used to treat children who are already hyperactive.
> Stimulants such as Ritalin are the most widespread treatment for ADHD.
D4 – Two children can answer exactly the same items on an intelligence test correctly, yet one can be
above average in intelligence and the other below average.
> This is true, because IQ tests include both mental age and chronological age as factors when
calculating IQ.
L01: Describe trends in physical development in middle childhood.
Following the growth trends of early childhood, boys and girls continue to gain a little over 5 cm (2”) in
height per year until adolescent growth spurt. Avg weight gain between ages 6-12 is 5-7 lbs a year
Nutrition and Growth
In middle childhood, average body weight doubles; spend lots of energy in physical activity and
play; school children eat more than preschoolers; avg 4-6 year old needs 1400 calories per day;
avg 7-10 year old needs 2000 calories
Sex similarities and differences in physical growth: boys slightly heavier, girls begin adolescent
growth spurt and surpass boys in height & weight until age 13/14; paralleled by increased muscle
strength in both genders; beginning at age 11, boys develop more muscle and girls develop more
fat
Overweight in Children
8% of children and youth obese; 18% overweight
often rejected by peers, focus of ridicule, poor at sports, risk of health problems
Causes: heredity; family, peers and environment
L02: Describe changes in motor development in middle childhood.
The school years are marked by increases in child’s speed, strength, agility, and balance. These
developments lead to more skilled motor activities.
Gross Motor Skills
Throughout middle childhood, show steady improvement in ability to perform gross motor skills
Hopping, jumping, climbing by age 6; by age 7 – pedalling, balancing on bike; ages 8-10
showing balance, coordination, strength
Muscles grow stronger, neural pathways that connect cerebellum to cortex become more
myelinated
Experience refines sensorimotor abilities
Reaction time – baseball, tennis – gradually improves to about age 18
Fine Motor Skills
By age 6-7 children can tie shoelaces, hold pencils, fasten buttons, zippers, brush teeth, wash,
coordinate fork and knife, use chopsticks

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Sex Differences
Boys and girls perform similarly in most motor activities
Boys show slightly more strength, especially in forearms
Girls show slightly greater limb coordination and overall flexibility
Puberty – differences favour boys
Exercise and Fitness
Reduces risk of heart disease, stroke, diabetes, certain caners; better self-image and coping skills
Over half of children aged 5-17 are not active enough for optimal growth and development
Cardiac and muscular fitness developed in aerobic (running, walking, swimming, cycling,
jumping rope) but phys. Ed programming declining over several decades
L03: Discuss ADHD and learning disabilities
Certain disabilities of childhood are most apt to be noticed in the middle childhood years, when the child
enters school. The school setting requires that a child sit still, pay attention, and master certain
academic skills.
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Shows excessive inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity (excessive restlessness); occurs by
age 7; impair ability to function in school, cannot sit still, difficulty getting along with others; 1-
5% of school-age children, more common in boys; ADHD sometimes over-diagnosed
Causes: genetic, brain chemical dopamine; Joel Nigg – lack of executive control of the brain
over motor and more primitive functions
Treatment and Outcome: Stimulants (Ritalin), promote activity of brain chemicals dopamine and
noradrenaline – stimulate executive centre of brain; increasing attention span and improving
academic performance
Learning Disabilities
Dyslexia – a reading disorder – letter reversals, mirror reading, slow reading, and reduced
comprehension
o1 in 6 Canadians
oOrigins: theories focus on ways in which sensory and neurological problems may
contribute to reading problems; genetic factors appear to be involved; 25-65% of children
how have one dysleic parent are dyslexic themselves; 40% of siblings of children with
dyslexia are dyslexic
Genetic factors may give rise to neurological problems or circulation problems in
left hemisphere of brain
Focus on phonological proessing
Learning disabilities: disorders characterized by inadequate development of specific academic,
language, and speech skills
oMay persist through life, but early recognition and remediation may help children learn
how to compensate for disability
Educating Children Who Have Disabilities
Treatment focuses on remediation; highly structured exercises to help them
Mainstreaming: placing children with disabilities in classrooms with children without disabilities
– adapted for the needs
L04: Describe Piaget’s concrete-operational stage
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Piaget: The Concrete-Operational Stage
Concrete operations: 3rd stage in Piaget’s scheme, characterized by flexible, reversible thought
concerning tangible objects and events – Ages 7-12, showing beginnings of adult logic
oConcrete-operational thought is reversible and flexible
oChildren are less egocentric than preoperational children
oDecentration – simultaneous focusing on more than one aspect or dimension of a problem
or situation
oConservation: concrete-operational children show understanding of the laws of
conservation
Transivity
Transivity: the principle that if A > B and B > C, then A > C.
Asking children to place objects in a series or order according to some property (age, height,
weight)
Seriation: placing objects in an order or series according to a property or trait
Class Inclusion: pre-operational child could not focus on two subclasses (dog and at) and the
larger subclass at the same time (animals); concrete-operational can
Applications of Piaget’s Theory to Education: learning involves active discovery; instruction
should be geared to child’s level of development
L05: Discuss Piaget’s and Kohlberg’s theories of moral development
On a cognitive level, moral development concerns the basis on which children judge that an act is right
or wrong. Piaget and Kohlberg believed that moral reasoning undergoes the same cognitive-
developmental pattern around the world. The moral considerations that children weight at a given age
may be influenced by the values of the cultural settings in which they are reared, but also reflect the
orderly unfolding of cognitive processes. Moral reasoning is related to the child’s overall cognitive
development.
Piaget’s Theory of Moral Development
First Stage (emerges at age 5):
oMoral realism (the judgment of acts as moral when they conform to authority or to the
rules of the game
oObject morality (the perception of morality as objective, that is, as existing outside the
cognitive functioning of people)
oImmanent justice: the view that retribution for wrongdoing is a direct consequence of the
wrongdoing
Seeing amount of damage done, not in terms of intentions of wrongdoer
Second stage (ages 9-11)
oAutonomous morality: children base moral judgments on the intentions of the wrongdoer
and on the amount of damage done
Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development
Kohlberg (1981, 1985) advanced the cognitive-developmental theory by elaborating on the kinds
of information children use and on the complexities of moral reasoning.
Three levels of moral development and two stages within each level
o1) Preconventional level: a period during which moral judgments are based largely on
expectations of rewards or punishments, mainly in 7-10 year olds
Stage 1: obedience vs. punishment
Stage 2: obedience = satisfaction of needs and needs of others
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