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FRHD 1010 (300)
Chapter 9-15

FRHD 1010 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9-15: Hormone Replacement Therapy, Late-Onset Hypogonadism, Polypharmacy

Family Relations and Human Development
Course Code
FRHD 1010
Susan Chuang

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Chapter 9 Adolescence: Body and Mind
years of rapid physical growth and sexual maturation
external and internal changes, along with emotions and sexual desire
Menarche: girls first menstrual period (avg age: 12-13)
Spermarche: boys first ejaculation of sperm (avg age: just under 13)
Unseen Beginnings
Hormones: body chemicals that regular hunger, sleep, moods, stress, sexual desire,
immunity, reproduction etc
Pituitary: gland in the brain that responds to signals from the hypothalamus
Adrenal glands: located above kidneys—produces epinephrine and norepinephrine
(stress hormones)
HPA/HPG (Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal/Gonad) axis: sequence of hormone
production that originates in the hypothalamus, moves to pituitary and then ends in
GnRH (gonadotropin): activated gonads
enlarge and produce
Estradiol: chief estrogen in females (same amount as men)
Testosterone: androgens (much more in males)
Primary Sex Characteristics: directly involve conception and pregnancy
Secondary Sex Characteristics: bodily features that do not directly affect fertility
visually signify culinary or femininity (ie. shape)
Age and Puberty
Genes and Gender
2/3 of variation in age of puberty is genetic
growth spurts in females tend to occur a few months before males
Body Fat
heavy girls reach menarche years earlier than malnourished ones
Secular Trend more food has allowed biological advances
Leptin: hormone that increase body fat and then triggers puberty
affects appetite in females more so males
increase at around age 12
Growing Bigger and Stronger
Sequence: Weight, Height and Muscles
weight depends on heredity, hormones, diet, exercise, gender
height spurt follows weight spurt
then muscle spurt a few years later
lungs triple in weight, heart doubles in size, RBC increase, endurance proves
lymphoid system decreases in size—become less susceptible to respiratory illness
Body Rhythms
Circadian Rhythm: a day-night cycle that occurs approx every 24 hours
puberty causes a phase delay which makes teens hungry at midnight and no energy
during the day
25% of Canadians are sleep deprived, and 60-70% are sleepy during morning classes
Diet Deficiencies
deficiencies or iron,calcium, zinc are common after puberty
Body Image
person’s idea of how his or her body looks

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as hormones of puberty begin, the sexes becomes less satisfied with their body
Eating Disorders
Anorexia Nervosa: eating disorder characterized by severe calorie restriction or a cycle of
bingeing and purging—can lead to organ failure and suicide for 15-20%
significantly low body weight for developmental stage (BMI or <17)
intense fear of weight gain
disturbed body perception and denial of the problem
Bulimia Nervosa: compulsive overeating eating thousands of calories within an hour or
two, and then purge by omitting or using laxatives or diuretics
severe gastrointestinal system damage
bingeing and purging at least once a week for three months
uncontrollable urges to overeat
sense of self inordinately tied to body shape and weight
Thinking, Fast and Slow
Brain Development
limbic system including amygdala (intense fear and excitement originate) matures before the
prefrontal cortex
instinctual and emotional areas the adolescent brain develop ahead of reflective, analytic
Caution Needed
since the frontal lobes develop last, many adolescents are driven by the excitement of new
and exciting experiences and sensations
emotions rule behaviour for years
Risk and Reward
impulses and poor decisions rather than problems with reflexes or vision/hearing, are
almost always to blamer these accidents
Thinking About Oneself
Adolescent Egocentrism: when they think intensely about themselves and what others
see of them
Imaginary Audience: believe that they are centre stage with all eyes on them
might cause adolescents to avoid scrutiny (criticism)
interprets everyones behaviour as if it were judgement towards themselves
Personal Fable: belief that one is unique and destined to have a heroic, fabled eve
legendary life
Invincibility Fable: he/she cannot be overcome or even harmed by anything that might
defeat a normal mortal
Formal Operational Thought
Formal Operational Thought: 4th and final stage of Piagets theory, more systematic logical
thinking and the ability to understand and systematically manipulate abstract concepts
made an experiment with balancing weights
by 7, children could balance the scale by putting the same weight at the ends
by 13/14, children knew that there was a relationship between weight and distance from
the centre
Hypothetical-Deductive Reasoning
Hypothetical Thought: reasoning about if-then propositions that do not reflect reality

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Deductive Reasoning: begins with abstract idea then uses logic to draw specific
Inductive Reasoning: with many specific examples leading to general conclusions
Two Modes of Thinking
Dual-Process Model: two networks exist within the human brain, one for emotional and one
for analytical processing of stimuli
Intuitive Thought: begins with a belief/assumption or general rule rather than logic
quick and powerful—feels right
Analytic Thought: formal, logical, hypothetical-deductive
rational analysis of many factors whose interactions have been calculated
Comparing Intuition and Analysis
logical thinking improved with age and education
being smarter (higher IQ) doesn't advance logic as much as experience
Preferring Emotions
analytical thought is more difficult than intuition and requires examination of comforting,
familiar prejudices
older adolescents are more suspicious of authority and more likely to consider mitigating
(make less severe) circumstances when judging the legitimacy of a rule
Teaching and Learning
Definitions and Facts
Secondary Education: grade 7-12, age 12-18
high school graduation correlates with better health
important for nations economic growth— growth depends on highly educated workers
Middle School: grade 6-8
puberty is the main reason why grades tend to fall
learning slows down with stress
teachers teach specific subjects to hundreds, leading to impersonal and distant
relationships with students
Entity Approach to intelligence: ability is innate, a fixed quantity present at birth
Incremental Approach to Intelligence: ability increases if they work on it
mastery motivation
School Transitions
Strangers in Schools
suggested that school enrolment should be 600 or fewer students
too many students are strangers with each other when there are too many students
more challenging to adapt for immigrant students
stereotype threat
persons own fear that other people are judging them
Cyberbullying: form of bullying that involves technology
Succeeding in High School
Measuring Practical Cognition
the PISA measures and finds things that correlate with high achievement
leaders, parents and citizens overall value education
standards are high and clear
teacher and administrators are valued
learning is prioritized across the entire system
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