FRHD 1010 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Phallic Stage, Electra Complex, Oedipus Complex
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Katy Lemaire FRHD1010
Feb 9th, 2016.
CHAPTER 6: Psychosocial Development
(1) Emotional Development: when children gradually begin to be able to express emotion.
Emotional regulation is the ability to control when and how emotions are expressed.
(2) Initiative vs. Guilt: Erikson’s third psychosocial crisis, in which children undertake new
skills and activities and feel guilty when they do not succeed at them. By age 3, children
develop a self concept which is a person’s understanding of who he or she is,
incorporating self esteem, physical appearance and personality such as gender and size.
This stage benefits from myelination in the limbic system, growth of prefrontal cortex
and longer attention span due to neurological maturation.
(3) Motivation: is the impulse that propels someone to act. Intrinsic motivation is a drive, or
reason to pursue a goal, that comes from inside a person such as the need to feel smart.
Extrinsic motivation is a drive, or reason, to pursue a goal that arises from the need to
have one’s achievements rewarded from outside.
(4) Seeking Emotional Balance: caregivers attempt to prevent psychopathology an illness or
disorder of the mind. Externalizing problems is difficulty with emotional regulation that
involves expressing powerful feelings through uncontrolled physical or verbal outbursts
as by lashing out at other people breaking things. Internalizing problems is difficulty
with emotional regulation that involves turning one’s emotional distress inward, by
feeling excessively guilty.
(5) Sex and Gender: sex differences are biological differences between males and females in
organs, hormones and body shapes. Gender differences are in the roles and behaviours
that are prescribed by a culture for males and females. Gender identity in early
childhood ability of children to make gender distinctions by accurately labelling
themselves as male or female. Gender stability is the ability of children to understand
their gender will not change over time. Gender constancy is the ability of children to
understand that gender cannot change, regardless of outside appearance.
(6) Freud and Psychoanalytic Theory: Believed from the age of 3-6 children are in the
phallic stage which the penis becomes the focus of concern and pleasure, at age 3-4
males become aware of their reproductive anatomy. The Oedipus complex is the
uncomfortable desires of young boys to replace their fathers and win their mothers
exclusive love. In self defence to combat this, boys develop a superego. The opposite
end is the Electra complex which is the unconscious desire of girls to replace their
mothers and win their fathers love. At the phallic stage children cope with fear and guilt
through identification which is an attempt to defend one’s self concept by taking on
behaviours and attitudes of someone else.
(7) What is a gender schema? A child’s cognitive concept or general belief about sex
differences which is based on his/her observations and experiences.
(8) Playmates and friendships: same ages and social statuses, tendency for sex segregation,
boys play with boys and girls play with girls, this is known as sex homophily. There are
many cultural differences in play such as solitary, onlooker, parallel, associative and
cooperative play. Rough and tumble play is play that mimics aggression through
wrestling, chasing or hitting but in which no intent to harm is there. Socio-dramatic play
is pretend play which children act out various roles and themes in stories that they can
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