Analysis involves trying to understand a phenomenon or event by breaking it into its parts and seeing how they fit together and are organized. How explanations tend to examine mechanisms at work whereas. When we analyze people, we often assume that people cause themselves to do things through self-motivation. In the social sciences, the principal way we answer. How and why questions is through theoretical analysis. All analyses and all theories make theoretical assumptions in order to explain things. Many theories that could compete to explain the same phenomenon (one of the greatest strengths of the social sciences). General forms of social science theories are abbreviated into these three sets of assumptions: Motivational theories assume that you choose or determine why and how you do something. Rational choice theory: this theory proposes that individuals choose events, people, and things based on the principle of maximum profit.