FRHD 1100 Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Hypodermic Needle, Inhalant, Bronchitis

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Chapter 11: Drug Use, Misuse, and Abuse
Understanding Drugs and Their Effects:
Drug: Any substance that is taken to change the way you feel and
function.
Drug Misuse: The taking of a drug for a purpose or by a person other
than that for which it was medically intended.
Drug Abuse: Excessive drug use that is inconsistent with accepted
medical practice.
Routes of Administration:
o Oral Ingestion: (Most common) Swallowing a tablet, capsule, or
liquid. Usually taken abut 30+ minutes to take effect
o Inhalation: Drugs entering the body through the lungs.
o Injection: Often done with a syringe and can be done intravenously
(directly into the vein), intramuscularly (into muscle tissue, which is
richly supplied with blood vessels), subcutaneously (beneath the
skin), or inunction (absorbing into the skin).
Intravenous (IV) Injection: A method of administration that
gets a concentrated form of a drug into the bloodstream
within second. Effects are felt within minutes.
Intramuscular Injection: A slower and consistent method of
administering drugs, usually by way of hypodermic needle into
the muscular tissue.
Subcutaneous Injection: A method of administering a drug by
an injection into the fatty layer beneath the skin. The drug is
absorbed more slowly because there is very little blood flow in
the fatty tissue.
Inunction: An option for administering drugs by anointing or
applying an ointment by rubbing or by applying adhesive
patches containing a drug to the skin.
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Dosage and Toxicity:
o Toxicity: The dosage level at which a drug becomes poisonous to the
body, causing either temporary or permanent damage.
o Most of the time drugs can eventually be broken down in the liver by
special body chemicals called detoxification enzymes.
Individual Differences in Response to Drugs:
o Setting: The external environment that a drug user is in. Can include
the number and type of people you are surrounded by, the level of
noise and lighting, and the type of room you are in. Can also be
linked to culture.
o High-risk setting can effect both frequency and amount of drug use.
Over-the-Counter Drugs:
Medications that can be obtained without a prescription from a medical
professional
Often misused OTC:
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Nasal Sprays: If used too often or frequently, blood vessels will widen
instead of contract the surrounding tissues will become swollen and cause
more congestion. Can result in total loss of smell.
Laxatives: Brands contain phenolphthalein can irritate the lining of the
intestines and cause muscles to contract or tighten, often making
constipation worse instead of better.
Eye Drops: Overuse may cause blood vessels in the eye to expand and
make the eye look very red.
Sleep Aids: Have many possible risks accompanying use.
Cough Syrups: Chugging cough syrup is an emerging problem.
Dextroethorpha DXM is thought to e a poor a’s ersio of
ecstasy.
Prescription Drugs:
Non-adherence: Not properly taking prescription drugs the way they
should be taken
Physical Side Effects:
o Heart failure
o Heart attacks
o Seizures
o Kidney/Liver failure
o Severe blood disorders
o Birth defects
o Blindness
o Memory problems
o Allergic reactions
Psychological Side Effects:
o Mania
o Depression
o Mood disturbances
o Delirium/Disorientation
o Forgetfulness
o Irritability
Caffeine Use and Misuse:
Caffeine is a psychotropic and a stimulant.
Psychotropic: Drugs that effects the mind.
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