FRHD 1100 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Contraceptive Sponge, Egg Cell, Cervical Cap

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Birth Control Choices and Pregnancy (Ch 8)
Conception: Making a baby (one sperm plus one egg= one fertilized egg)
Contraception: Prevent conception, ovulation, or implantation of sperm to egg
Implantation: When egg reaches uterus and burrows itself into the endometrium lining a week
after fertilization
Fertilization: When sperm fuses with nucleus of the egg
Forms of birth control
oAbstinence and outer course:
Abstinence: deliberate choice regarding bodies, minds, spirits and sexuality,
only form of birth control that is 100% effective, less likely to get STIs, to suffer
infertility or to develop cervical cancer
Outercourse: kissing, hugging, sensual touching, mutual masturbation, nearly
100% effective unless genitals touch, lowers risk of getting at STI but not
considered “safe sex” b/c can still get disease from skin contact
oBirth control pill: combination, multiphasic or progestin-only (mini pill), prevents
Pros: very effective, less risk of cancers, reversible, do not interrupt sexual
activity, more regular periods, less cramping, fewer ectopic pregnancies, reduced
risk of breast lumps, ovarian cysts, iron deficiency anemia, and pelvic
inflammatory disease
Cons: Increased risk of blood clots and VTE, does not protect against STIs,
spotting, emotional swings, risk of cardiovascular problems
oContraceptive ring:
NuvaRing releases low dose of estrogen and progestin, prevents ovulation
Pros: No need for pill, ability to become pregnant quickly returns once she stops
using the ring
Cons: More vaginal discharge, irritation, infection, those who can’t take BC also
cant use the ring
oContraceptive patch:
Continuously releases estrogen and progestin into blood
Pros: More than 99% effective at preventing pregnancy when used perfectly,
does not have to remember to take a pill, can quickly become pregnant when
stops using
Cons: Increased risk of blood clots, heart attack and stroke, less effective in
women over 198 lbs, change in vision for people wearing contact lenses
oContraceptive injectibles: contains progestin provides 3 months of contraceptive
Pros: Do not need to take a daily pill, can be used by women who can’t taken
oral contraceptives, some protection from cancers
Cons: No protection again HIV and STIs, menstrual irregularities, delayed
return of fertility, bleeding, decreased libido, headaches, depression, weight
gain, loss of bone-mineral density
oIntrauterine devices (IUD): Prevents pregnancy by interfering with implantation
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