FRHD 1100 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Trans Fat, Dietary Fiber, Dried Fruit

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Chapter 5: Personal Nutrition
-science of nutrition, the field that explores the connections between our bodies and the
food we eat
-daily diet affects how long and how well we live
-sensible eating can provide energy for daily tasks, protect us from disease, and may
extend longevity
What You Need To Know About Nutrients
-body needs certain essential nutrients that it cannot manufacture for itself
-provide energy, build and repair body tissue, and regulate body functions
-six classes of essential nutrients: water, protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, and
-water is essential for health and survival
-need energy to live from carbohydrates, proteins and fats (macronutrients)
-macronutrients are the nutrients required by the human body in greatest amounts
-amount of energy that can be derived from macronutrients is measured in calories
-9 calories=gram of fat
-4 calories= gram of protein or carbohydrate
-micronutrients are two essential nutrients we need in small amounts: vitamins and
-need for macronutrients depend on how much energy you expend
-adult: 45-65% of calories from carbohydrates, 20-35% from fat, and 20-35% from
protein; children fat intake should be 25-40%
-carries nutrients and removes waste; dissolves amino acids, glucose, and minerals;
cleans body by removing toxins; regulates body temperature; lubricates joints; helps
with digestion, rids the body of waste through urine; contributes to production of sweat
-lose 2-2.5 litres of water a day through perspiration, urination, bowel movements, and
normal exhaustion
-ensure adequate water intake, need minimum 2.7-3.7 literates of fluid each day
-sources: liquids, fruits and vegetables
-measure of the amount of energy that can derive from food
-how many you need depends on sex, age, body-frame size, weight, percentage of
body fat, activity level and your basal metabolic rate (number of calories needed to
sustain your body at rest)
-caloric requirements for female ages 19-30:
-sedentary level (participate in daily activities)-1900 calories per day
-low active level (daily living activities + moderate activity)- 2100 calories
-active level (daily living activities + 60 min moderate activity)- 2350 calories
-forms the basic framework for our muscles, bones, blood, hair, and fingernails
-critical for growth and repair
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-made of a combination of 20 amino acids
-animal proteins- meat, fish, poultry, and dairy products, are complete proteins that
provide 8 essential amino acids (get from diet because body cannot produce)
-grain, dry beans, and nuts are incomplete proteins that have relatively low levels of
essential amino acids but high levels of others
-combining proteins ensures that body gets sufficient protein (complementary protein)
-recommended level for adults- 0.8g per kilogram of body weight
-organic compounds that provide our brain and body with glucose, their basic fuel
-4 calories=gram
-classified according to the number and type of simple sugar units present
-Monosaccharide (glucose, fructose, galactose) know as simple sugars consist of one
simple sugar unit
-Disaccharides (sucrose, maltose, lactose) contain two sugar units linked by chemical
bonds; must be broke down into simple sugars before body can use them
-Polysaccharides (starches and glycogen) known as complex carbohydrates have more
than 10 units of sugar; must be broken down to use
-fibre and starches are two major forms of complex carbohydrates
-most digestible carbohydrates broken down to monosaccharaides in intestine
-monosaccharaides are absorbed in small intestine may be metabolized and stored as
glycogen in the liver or muscle cells for energy
-adult recommended 130g of digestible carbohydrates per day
Simple Carbohydrates
-Include natural sugars (milk and fruit) and added sugars (candy, pop)
-should limit sugar intake
Complex Carbohydrates
-foundation of a healthy diet
-majority found in dietary starches
-store starches in our muscles and liver in the form of a polysaccharide called glycogen
-when we need energy, glycogen is broken down into glucose
-whole grains made up of: the bran (fibre-rich outer layer), the endosperm (middle
layer), and the herm (nutrient-packed inner layer)
-dietary fibre: non-digestible form of carbohydrates occurring naturally in plant foods
-functional fibre: consist of isolated, non-digestible carbohydrates that may be added to
foods and that provide beneficial effects in humans
-total fibre: the sum of both
-fibre described as soluble or insoluble
-soluble fibre absorbs water that then swells and traps nutrients such as glucose which
slows the absorption process in the blood keeping food longer in the small intestine
-makes you feel full longer, helps control blood regulation and weight management
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-soluble fibres also interfere with absorption of dietary fat and cholesterol, which lowers
risk of heart disease and stroke
-three main insoluble fibres: cellulose, lignin and hemicelluloses
-insoluble fibre slings to water and helps prevent constipation, and diverticulosis
-recommended level: women: 25 g men: 38g
Glycemic Index
-measure of how much a carbohydrate-containing food is likely to raise your blood
-food with high GI will raise your blood sugar more than food with low GI
-low GI foods have health benefits like prevention of type 2 diabetes, control of blood
sugar levels, and control of blood cholesterol levels
-foods with high GI found in grain product food group
-carry fat-soluble vitamin A, D, E, and K; aid in these vitamins’ absorption in the
intestine; protect organs from injury; regulate body temperature; and play an important
role in growth and development
-9 calories=gram
Saturated Fats
-carbon atoms are saturated with hydrogen atoms
-animal fats are saturated fats ex. butter
-link to cholesterol; increases risk of heart disease
-form of fat manufactured by our bodies that circulates in our blood
-80% made by liver, 20% from foods we eat
-made up of high density lipoproteins (good type; help to transport cholesterol to livers
for metabolism and elimination ), low density lipoproteins (bad cholesterol that
accumulate on inner walls of arteries known as plaque that restricts blood flow resulting
in increased risk of blood clot. Do help bodies by transporting cholesterol to body’s cell),
and very low density lipoproteins (made by liver, function as the body’s internal transport
highway for lipids. Enable fats and cholesterol to move within water-based solution of
Unsaturated Fats
-have more than one double-bonded carbon in the molecule
-come in two forms: monounsaturated and polyunsaturated
-monounsaturated fats have been shown to improve blood cholesterol levels
-polyunsaturated fats help prevent blood clots and lowers triglycerides
-hydrogenation creates unsaturated fatty acids called Trans fatty acids
-twice as damaging as saturated fats
How Much Fat is Okay?
-recommended range is 20-35% of total calories
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