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Chapter 7

FRHD 2040 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Theory Of Multiple Intelligences, No Child Left Behind Act, Standardized Test

Family Relations and Human Development
Course Code
FRHD 2040
Triciavan Rhijn

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Program Design for Children
Chapter 7
Defining Assessment and Testing:
Assessment and testing are not synonymous terms
Assessment: Collecting and evaluating information about the performance
of an individual, the quality of a program or the effectiveness of an activity
Testing: May be one component of collecting data for assessment purposes,
but it’s only in the evaluating of data that assessment happens
Types of Assessment:
Formative Assessment: Quick check of what the children are learning (most
often used on a daily basis)
o Useful to help teachers adjust their instruction and make changes for
individual students
Summative Assessment: Occurs at the end of a teaching unit/topic, final
assessment for a given time period/topic
o By the time this occurs, adjustments can no longer be made in
Types of Tests:
Achievement Test: Measures the extent to which a person has mastery over
a certain body of information or possesses a certain skill after instruction has
taken place
Criterion-Referenced Test: Evaluates a test taker in relation to a specified
performance level (as distinguished from a test that compares the test taker’s
score to the performance of other people, which are norm-referenced tests)
Developmental Test: Age-related, norm-referenced assessment of a child’s
skills and behaviours compared to those of children of the same
chronological age; sometimes used incorrectly as screening tests
Norm-Referenced Test: A test that compares the test taker’s performance
to the performance of other people in a specified group
Readiness Test: A test that assesses a child’s level of preparedness for a
specific academic or preacademic program
Reliability: The degree to which test scores are consistent, dependable, or
repeatable; that is, the degree to which test scores can be attributed to actual
differences in test takers’ performance rather than to errors of measurement
Screening Test: A test used to identify children who may be in need of
special services; such a test focuses on the child’s ability to acquire skills and
may also be called a developmental screening test
Standardized Test: A test composed of empirically selected items that is to
be used in a specific way, is based on adequately defined norms, and is
backed by data on reliability and validity

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Validity: The degree to which a test measures what it’s supposed to
measure; also, the degree to which a certain inference from a test is
appropriate or meaningful
Testing Young Children:
Young children are often given screening tests
o Attempt to determine a child’s ability to learn skills
Many of these tests ask children to identify things
Developmental Screening Test: What children can do compared to other
kids their age
Readiness Tests: Ask children to recognize letters and numerals, to find
objects that go together, and to recognize objects that aren’t the same as
other sin a set
Arguments are made to say that screening tests lack reliability and validity
Standardized tests should be considered one of many things available to test
children, but not the only thing
A standardized test should be administered only if its administration can
meet the criteria for good assessment. Criteria include:
o Ethical
o Appropriate for the children to be tested
o Valid
o Reliable
o Culturally and linguistically responsive
o Connected to specific, beneficial purposes
Most standardized tests don’t’ actually meet these
High-Stakes Testing:
Tests on which major decisions should be made
No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act:
o To help schools close the achievement gap between disadvantaged
and/or minority students and their peers
o To make sure that all teachers are qualified to teach
o To make sure that all children ain all schools are learning
o To give parents more choices in their children’s education
o Requires testing each child and reporting the test scores by subgroup
o Expensive
o High-stakes testing narrows the curriculum (teaching to the test)
o Children with disabilities and ESL students have difficulties
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