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Chapter 2

FRHD 2040 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Direct Instruction, Bank Street College Of Education, Sandpaper

Family Relations and Human Development
Course Code
FRHD 2040
Triciavan Rhijn

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Program Design for Children
Chapter 2
Early Schools for Young Children:
Martin Luther (1483) believed that all boys should be educated and insisted
that music and physical ed. Should be key parts of the curriculum
John Comenius (1592) said all kids should attend school, and wanted an
integrated hands-on curriculum
o Children should learn to speak by writing, write by writing, and
reason by reasoning
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712) thought educational decisions should be
made on the basis of the child’s nature
Pestalozzi (1746) wanted to rid the schools of cruel punishment and rote
Key People in Early Childhood Education:
Frederich Froebel (1782-1852):
o Founding kindergartens
o Began his school in Germany in 1837
o Believed that everything in the universe functions in relationship to
God and that each person has a specific purpose to fulfill in this life
o Believed play is the foundation for children’s learning
o Materials found in nature help children explore the properties of
Patty Smith Hill (1868-1946):
o Play as a way of learning
o Insistence on creative approaches to art and music
o Commitment to the goal of an individualized curriculum
o Invented play materials that encouraged kids to construct a variety of
o Believed in free expression in art and music
o Emerging Curriculum: The curriculum that grows out of observation
of the kids and their needs, along with the interactions between the
teacher and children
o Emphasis on the importance of the child’s home and the learning that
happened there
John Dewey (1859-1952):
o Progressive Education Movement: Progressive educators view
existing schools as too rigid and formal
o Believed that education should be based more on children’s interest
vs. a firm rigid structure
Although still believed that activity itself was not enough for
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Lucy Sprague Mitchell (1878-1967):
o Principles for Education of Young Children:
Stimulating each child to unfold as fully as possible, but at their
own pace
Welcoming individual children’s conversation and other forms
of self-expression
Promoting learning through play
Avoiding teacher-given external reward, because the reward of
learning through meaningful activity is in seeing a challenge
and solving the problem oneself
o Didn’t create these principles, but was highly into promoting them
Influential People in Early Childhood Education:
G. Stanley Hall:
o Advocate of the scientific study of children and adolescents
o He never tested his conclusions in real school settings
o Critical of the Froebelian approach to kindergarten
J. McVicker Hall:
o What we measure as intelligence is not fixed but rather responsive to
Benjamin Bloom:
o Much of what can be measured as IQ at age 17 is developed in the
child’s early years
o Bloom’s Taxonomy:
Simple recall
o This taxonomy helps teachers thinks about what kinds of questions
they ask students, and what thinking results from it
o Mastery Learning: Children could master tasks at school, but they
would need more time/guidance in order to do so
Abraham Maslow:
o Hierarchy of Needs:
Basic Needs i.e. food, shelter, air, water
Safety and Security Needs
Love and Belonging Needs
Self-Esteem Needs
Self-Actualization Needs
o Most basic needs needed to be met before you could move on to the
next level
Jerome Bruner:
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