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Chapter 13

FRHD 2040 Chapter Notes - Chapter 13: Nonverbal Communication, Dramatization, Dalcroze Eurhythmics

Family Relations and Human Development
Course Code
FRHD 2040
Triciavan Rhijn

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Program Design for Children
Chapter 13
The Consortium of National Arts Education Association (1996)
Arts are worth studying because arts serve to connect our imaginations with
the deepest questions of human existence
Used to achieve multitude of human purposes; to present issues and ideas, to
teach or persuade, to entertain, to decorate or to please
Offer unique sources of enjoyment and refreshment
Help develop attitudes, characteristics, and intellectual skills required to
participate effectively in today’s society and economy
The proactive, purposeful impulse to extend beyond the present,
characterized by originality, imagination, and fantasy
Creativity does not have a proper answer neither correct or good it’s
interpretation of peo9ple’s world
Goals of Arts Education:
1. Everyone should have an education in the arts
2. To ensure basic education in the arts for all students, the arts should be
recognized as serious, core academic subjects
3. As education policy makers decisions, they should incorporate the multiple
lessons of recent research concerning the value and impact of arts education
4. Qualified art teachers and sequential curriculum must be recognized as the
basis and core for substantive art education for all students
5. Art education programs should be grounded in rigorous instruction, provide
meaningful assessment of academic progress and performance, and take
their place within a structure of direct accountability to school officials,
parents and the community
6. Community resources that provide exposure to the arts, enrichment, and to
an in-school art education
7. We offer our unified support to those programs, policies, and practitioners
that reflect these principles
Stands for Art Education:
1. Help define what a good arts education should provide in terms of
knowledge and skills as well their application in producing and enjoying art
2. Give school districts and states across the nation guidelines for what a good
arts education should include
Visual Arts:
Refers to graphic arts
Constructivist View: Children grow and develop, their representations with
graphic materials change in predictable and unvarying stages
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Stages in Development:
Lowen and Brittain identified stages of arts as scribbling, pre-schematic,
schematic, and drawing realism
Scribbling (13 months): Kellogg concluded that scribbles usually fall into
distinct patterns
Pre-schematic (4 years old): Draw human figures with large proportion
heads and legs coming out of their heads tend to have no colour and placed
randomly on the page
Schematic (7 years old): Develop definite forms representing their
o Children may use an X-ray perspective in this stage inside and
outside of a house
Drawing Realism (9 years old): Include smaller more detailed drawings
Standards for Visual Arts Education:
1. Understanding and applying media, techniques and processes
2. Using knowledge of structures, and functions
3. Choosing and evaluating a range of subject matter, symbols and ideas
4. Understanding the visual arts in relation to history and cultures
5. Reflecting upon and assessing the characteristics and merits of their works
and the work of others
6. Making connection between visual arts and other disciplines
Suggested Visual Art Experiences:
Graphic Art: Goal is for the child to learn to control the market or chalk in
order to fill in spaces, or drawing their own shapes and figures
Painting: Learn to control mess included paint drips and splatters, explore
results of using paints with different thickness, etc.
Printing: Most kindergarten primary ages make simple prints but can be
made more complex
Collage: Gives child opportunities to develop an appreciation for texture and
appealing arrangements of objects that aren’t possible with other media
Sewing and Weaving
Combining Techniques
Viewing and Talking about Art: Adding appropriate artworks that relate to
topics of interest to the children is key to getting them to talk and look at art
more closely
Art vs. Craft Activities:
Art is an opportunity for children to explore media with no external product
Craft activities requires that children produce something and most of the
products will be very similar or exactly the same amongst the class
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