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Chapter 1

FRHD 2040 Chapter 1: CH1

Family Relations and Human Development
Course Code
FRHD 2040
Triciavan Rhijn

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Early Schools for Young Children
Martin Luther
o All boys should be educated
o Music and physical education should be integral parts of the curriculum
John Comenius
o All children should attend school
o Integrated, hands-on curriculum
Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Johann Pestalozzi
o Eduatioal deisios should e ade o the asis of the hild’s nature
o Rid schools of harsh punishment and rote learning
Key People in Early Childhood Education
Friedrich Froebel
o Founder of kindergarten
o Everything in the universe functions in relationship to God
o Each person has a purpose to fulfill in life
o Pla is the foudatio of a hild’s learig
o Kindergarten was the bridge between home and school
o Play helps kids think about interactions between life and self-activity
o Materials found in nature help children explore the properties of matter and
understanding and understanding the relationships of the universe
o Occupations: folding paper, drawing, and weaving
o Thoughtless copying vs. deliberate imitation
o Arouse and maintain interest and attention
Patty Smith Hill
o Free expression in art and music
o Emerging curriculum
o Iportae of the hild’s hoe ad the learig that took plae there
John Dewey
o Progressive education movement
o Teacher centered
o Subject-matter orientation
o Should e ased o hildre’s iterests ad should iole children in active
o Children needed to be engaged in real and meaningful activities
o Development of an active curriculum that was integrated
o Encourage students to work in groups
Lucy Sprague Mitchell
o Stimulating each child to unfold as fully as possible at their own pace
o Weloig idiidual hildre’s oersatio ad other fors of self-expression
o Promoting learning through play and through meaningful self-initiated or teacher-
initiated planned experiences and projects
o Individualizing
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o Avoiding teacher-given external rewards, because the reward of learning through
meaningful activity is in seeing a challenge and solving the problem oneself
o Group skills and cooperation
Other Influential people in Early Childhood Education
G. Stanley Hall
o Focused on the nature of children
o More emphasis on free play and attention to physical health
J. McVicker Hunt
o What we measure as intelligence is not fixed but rather responsive to experience
o Programs designed to provide experiences for children who might miss out otherwise
Benjamin Bloom
o Stability and change in human characteristics
o Looked at intelligence over a period of time
o Bloo’s Taoo
Simple recall, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating, and creating
o Mastery learning
Some children need more time and more activities or guidance
Learner can move at their own pace
Abraham Maslow
o Motivation and personality
o Theor of learig that is foused o the learer’s eeds
o Unless the basic needs were met, learning would not be very difficult or not happen at
Jerome Bruner
o Development of language, play, thinking, and curriculum
o Ke to good teahig is uderstadig the hild’s deelopet ad ho the see the
world to translate the subjet to soe for that fits the hild’s urret ies
Changes in Early Childhood Education
The Chile-Care Movement
To prove shelter of mothers dependent on their own exertions for their daily bread
Belief that mothers should take care of their own children
Attendance is not mandatory in most US states
Head Start
Change the lives of poor children
Plan to break the cycle of poverty
Programs for Children with Special Needs
Every child is entitled to an education the least restricted environment
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