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Chapter 13

FRHD 2100 Chapter Notes - Chapter 13: Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder, Sexual Dysfunction, Erection

Family Relations and Human Development
Course Code
FRHD 2100
Tuuli Kukkonen

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Chapter 13
-sexual dysfunction: a persistent or recurrent difficulty with a lack of sexual desire or arousal,
or difficulty reaching orgasm.
-most people experience some type of sexual problem from time to time
-men occasionally have difficulty getting/keeping erection, or ejaculate more
quickly than they would like to
-oe otie thei desie fo seual atiit is loe tha the’d like it to e, o
they occasionally have difficulty being sexually aroused or reaching orgasm
-these temporary/occasional problems with sexual response DO NOT qualify as sexual
-only if the problem persists over time and causes distress does it count as sexual
-people who have sexual dysfunctions:
-avoid opportunities for sexual interaction
-anticipate sex will result in frustration/physical pain, rather than pleasure/gratification
-feel inadequate/incompetent = low self-esteem
-guilt, shame, frustration, depression, anxiety
-people who have sexual dysfunctions find them difficult to talk about with partners and health
care professionals
-patient embarrassment about bringing up sexual concerns is often compounded by physicians
who may never ask about them
-because most people are relutat to eeal poles ith seual futioig, e do’t hae
precise figures on their prevalence
-general estimate of prevalence of sexual dysfunction:
-2/5 women report experiencing at least one sexual dysfunction
-1/4 men report experiencing at least one sexual dysfunction
-best source of sexual problems in women = Canadian Contraception Study
-survey asked women if they had experienced three types of sexual difficulty (low sex desire,
painful intercourse, lack of orgasm during intercourse)
-half of women experienced at least one problem
-married women reported more sexual difficulties than single women
-most common problem = diminished sexual desire
-married women twice as likely to report low desire than unmarried women
-second most common problem = difficulty with orgasm
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-rates of sexual dysfunction reported in studies depends on the measures used and populations
-ex. Higher age of participants = higher percentage who will report erectile dysfunction
-sexual problems are common within adult Canadian population, regardless of measures
-find that between ages of 40-: 0% too tied to hae se, 2% too stessed, 0% did’t hae
-75% of those with sexual dysfunctions DO NOT seek help from health professionals
-most frustrating sexual situations for women:
-lack of orgasm during intercourse
-unaffectionate partners
-unavailability of partners
-refusal of partners to have sex
-new DSM came out in 2013, called the DSM-5
-DSM-5 made several important changes to the way sexual dysfunction are classified
-oe ipotat hage iluded egig the disodes feale hpoatie desie disode ad
feale aousal disode ito a sigle disode, feale seual interest/arousal disode
-this change was made because for many women, desire and arousal phases of sexual
response overlap
-another change that was made in DSM-5 was that the female sexual pain dysfunctions
dyspareuia (persistent or recurrent pain during sexual activity) and vagiisus
(involuntary contraction of muscles surrounding the vaginal barrel, preventing or making
penetration painful), which also often overlap, were merged into a single category called
geito-peli pai/peetatio disode
-DSM-5 conceptualizes sexual dysfunction into 4 basic categories:
1. Sexual-desire: two DSM-5-listed sexual dysfunctions (female sexual interest/ arousal
disorder; male hypoactive sexual desire disorder) involve lack of interest in sex or
aversion to sexual contact.
2. Sexual-arousal: two DSM-5 sexual dysfunctions involve problems with sexual arousal. In
men, erectile disorder refers to a persistent difficulty in obtaining or sustaining erections
sufficient to engage in satisfactory sexual activity. In women, the arousal component of
female sexual interest/arousal disorder typically involves insufficient lubrication.
3. Orgasm: three DSM-5 sexual dysfunctions involve problems related to orgasm. Female
orgasmic disorder refers to persistent problems having an orgasm among women. In
men, delayed ejaculation involves the inability to ejaculate and premature (early)
ejaculation involves reaching orgasm too quickly.
4. Sexual-pain: one DSM-5 sexual dysfunction involves pain during sexual activity. Genito-
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pelvic pain/penetration disorder refers to women who experience pain in the vaginal
area (often called dyspareunia) and/or involuntary contraction of the muscles that
surround the vaginal barrel, preventing or making penetration painful (often called
-DSM-5 specifies that in order for a sexual problem or difficulty to be diagnosed as a sexual
dysfunction it must have occurred for a period of about six months or more, happen 75-100%
of the time, and cause the person significant distress
-exception: sexual problems that are caused by medications or substances (do not require a
minimum 6-month duration to be classified a sexual dysfunction)
-sexual dysfunction classified as:
1. Lifelong
2. Acquired (follow periods of unproblematic functioning)
3. Generalized (occur in all situations)
4. Situational (affect sexual functioning only in some situations, such as during
partnered sexual activity but not with solo masturbation, or with one partner but
not the other)
Sexual Desire-Related Disorders
-affect both men and women
-men: male hypoactive sexual desire disorder
-women: female sexual interest/arousal disorder
-absence of sexual thoughts or fantasies
-problem is more common among women than men (but the belief that men are always eager
for sex is a myth)
-a person with lack of desire can still get an erection, lubricate adequately, or reach orgasm
-many enjoy sexual activity (though they are unlikely to initiate it)
-many enjoy the closeness of physical intimacy but have no interest in genital stimulation
-lack of sexual desire one of the most common complaints related to sexual functioning
-but how do you defie lo seual desie- there is no standard level of sexual desire, each
person is different (not everyone has the same level of sexual desire)
-usuall eoe appaet he thee’s a disepa etee leels of desies i a ouple
-men are generally more interested in sex than women are
-in heterosexual couples, men have a higher level of desires
-gay and lesbian couples experience fewer discrepancies than heterosexual couples
-a peso ith a loe leel of desie does’t eessail hae a sexual dysfunction
-REMEMBER: lack of desire should be classified as a dysfunction only when the person finds his
or her level of sexual desire personally distressing
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