Textbook Notes (280,000)
CA (170,000)
U of G (10,000)
FRHD (1,000)
FRHD 2100 (400)
Chapter 5

FRHD 2100 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia, X Chromosome, Inguinal Canal


Department
Family Relations and Human Development
Course Code
FRHD 2100
Professor
Ajay Heble
Chapter
5

This preview shows pages 1-2. to view the full 8 pages of the document.
!"#$"%&'()"'*+,-)./.01-2/'+(2("'.3'4"1#0'3"52/"'.%'52/"6'2+'1#3/7"#-"$'4,'
-7/(7%2/'-.#-"*(+'.3'0"#$"%'2**%.*%12("'4")281.7%9'!"#$"%'1+'$1+(1#-('3%.5'
2#2(.51-'+":6';)1-)'1+'42+"$'.#'()"'*),+1-2/'$133"%"#-"+'4"(;""#'3"52/"+'2#$'
52/"+
<
!"#$"%'(,*1#0&'()"'*%.-"++'4,';)1-)'-)1/$%"#'2-=71%"'4")281.7%+'$""5"$'
2**%.*%12("'3.%'()"1%'+":
<
>":72/'$133"%"#(12(1.#&'()"'*%.-"++'4,';)1-)'52/"+'2#$'3"52/"+'$"8"/.*'$1+(1#-('
%"*%.$7-(18"'2#2(.5,
<
?.('+"5"#'@'52/"
A./$'+"5"#'@'3"52/"
B%1+(.(/"'4"/1"8"$'2#2(.51-2/'$133"%"#-"';2+'$7"'(.')"2('.3'()"'+"5"#'2('(15"'
.3'+":72/'%"/2(1.#+
<
A)%.5.+.5"&'2'%.$/1C"'+(%7-(7%"'3.7#$'1#'()"'#7-/"7+'.3'"8"%,'/181#0'-"//9'
A2%%1"+'0"#"(1-'-.$"'1#'()"'3.%5'.3'0"#"+
<
DE'-)%.5.+.5"+'3%.5'()"'52/"'-.541#"+';1()'DE'-)%.5.+.5"+'3%.5'()"'
3"52/"'*2%"#(
<
F,0.("&'2'3"%(1/1G"$'.875'
<
<
JJ'@'3"52/"
JK'@'52/"
DE%$'*21%'.3'-)%.5.+.5"+'1+'()"'+":'-)%.5.+.5"
<
B3("%'3"%(1/1G2(1.#6'()"'G,0.("'$181$"+'%"*"2("$/,
<
B('24.7('E';""C+6'2'*%151(18"')"2%('4"01#+'(.'$%18"'4/..$'()%.70)'()"'
"54%,.#1-'4/..$+(%"25
<
L""C'M'N;""C'O6'"54%,.'1+'H9M'NP-5'/.#06')2+'2'*21%'.3'+":72//,'
7#$133"%"#(12("$'0.#2$+6'(;.'+"(+'.3'*%151(18"'$7-('+(%7-(7%"+'-2//"$'()"'
Q7//"%12#'R3"52/"S'$7-(+'2#$'()"'L./3312#'R52/"S'$7-(+6'2#$'*%151(18"'":("%#2/'
0"#1(2/+';).+"'+":'-2##.('4"'81+72//,'$1+(1#071+)"$
<
T54%,.&'()"'+(20"'.3'*%"#2(2/'$"8"/.*5"#('()2('4"01#+';1()'15*/2#(2(1.#'.3'2'
3"%(1/1G"$'.875'1#'()"'7("%7+'2#$'-.#-/7$"+';1()'$"8"/.*5"#('.3'()"'52U.%'
.%02#'+,+("5+'2('24.7('(;.'5.#()+'23("%'-.#-"*(1.#
<
B('V';""C+6'0"#"(1-'-.$"'4"01#+'(.'2++"%('1(+"/3<
W,'V';""C'.3'*%"#2(2/'$"8"/.*5"#(6'+(%2#$+'.3'(1++7"'4"01#'(.'.%02#1G"'1#(.'
+"51#13"%.7+'(747/"+'
<
B4.7('PH';""C+6'3.%"%7##"%+'.3'3.//1-/"+'()2(';1//'4"2%'.82'2%"'#.('3.7#$'7#(1/'
()"'3"(2/'+(20"'.3'$"8"/.*5"#(
<
L""C'PPNPD'.82%1"+'4"01#'(.'3.%5<
!"#$%&%'()#*+%'(,-..#"#$&-%&-/$
B#$%.0"#+&'52/"'+":').%5.#"+<
L1().7('2#$%.0"#+6';"X$'2//'$"8"/.*'3"52/"'":("%#2/' %"*%.$7-(18"'.%02#+<
Y"+(.+("%.#"&'()"'52/"'+":').%5.#"'()2('3.+("%+'$"8"/.*5"#('.3'52/"'+":'
-)2%2-("%1+(1-+'2#$'1+'-.##"-("$';1()'()"'+":'$%18"
<
Z"52/"'+":').%5.#"+'2%"'-%7-12/'1#'*74"%(,'47('2%"'#.('1#8./8"$'1#'3"(2/'+":72/'
$133"%"#(12(1.#
<
)#*(0/"1/$#2(%$3()#*+%'(,-..#"#$&-%&-/$
Y)"'("+("+'2#$'.82%1"+'$"8"/.*')10)'1#'()"'24$.51#2/'-281(,'<
PH';""C+6'()",'$"+-"#$'2#$'2%"'"8"#';1()'()"'7**"%'"$0"'.3'()"'*"/81+<
[82%1"+'%"521#'3.%'%"+('.3'*%"#2(2/'*"%1.$6'/2("%'%.(2("+'2#$'37%()"%'$"+-"#$+'(.'
()"1%'2$7/('*.+1(1.#+
<
I'5.#()+6'("+("+'$"+-"#$'1#(.'+-%.(2/'+2-'()%.70)'1#071#2/'-2#2/6';)1-)'-/.+"+<
\#071#2/'-2#2/&'2'3"(2/'-2#2/'()2('-.##"-(+'()"'+-%.(75'2#$'()"'("+("+'2//.;1#0'
()"'/2(("%'(.'$"+-"#$
<
]+72//,'(%"2("$'()%.70)'+7%0"%,'.%').%5.#2/'()"%2*,
?10)"%'%1+C'3.%'-2#-"%
>*"%5'*%.$7-(1.#'1+'15*21%"$
A%,*(.%-)1$1+5&'2'-.#$1(1.#'1#';)1-)'2('/"2+('.#"'.3'()"'("+("+'321/+'(.'$"+-"#$<
,#24#$&(/.(&5#(6#2&#2(%$3(78%"-#2
Z21/'(.'$"8"/.*'2**%.*%12("'+"-.#$2%,'+":'-)2%2-("%1+(1-+'
T#/2%0"$'4%"2+(+6'*..%'57+-7/2%'$"8"/.*5"#(
Z21/'(.'*%.$7-"'+*"%56'1#3"%(1/"
Q1/$'5"#(2/'%"(2%$2(1.#
^/1#"3"/("%X+'+,#$%.5"&'52/"')2+'2#'":(%2'J'+":'-)%.5.+.5"'RJJK'*2(("%#S<
Q2,'#.('#2(7%2//,'7#$"%0.'*74"%(,
Y7%#"%X+'+,#$%.5"&'2'3"52/"')2+'U7+('.#"'J'-)%.5.+.5"'RJ'*2(("%#S<
Y)"'4%21#'7#$"%0."+'*%"#2(2/'+":72/'$133"%"#(12(1.#<
Y"+(.+("%.#"'-27+"+'),*.()2/257+'(.'4"-.5"'1#+"#+1(18"'(.'"+(%.0"#<
>"#+1(181(,'(.'"+(%.0"#'1+'15*.%(2#('1#'%"07/2(1.#'.3'()"'5"#+(%72/'-,-/"'23("%'
*74"%(,
<
)#*(95"/1/2/1#(:;$/"1%'-&-#2
A1+0"#$"%&'+":'()",';"%"'2++10#"$'2('41%()'52(-)"+'()"1%'0"#$"%'1$"#(1(,<
<#$3#"(=3#$&-&>
_."+'#.('2--7%2("/,'%"3/"-('()"'$18"%+"'%2#0"'.3'0"#$"%'1$"#(1(1"+'()2('
2-(72//,'":1+(
!"#$"%'41#2%,&'+.-12/'+,+("5'()2('$"31#"+'3"#$"%'2+'"1()"%'+(%1-(/,'52/"'.%'
3"52/"
<
?.%5.#2/'32-(.%+'$7%1#0'*%"#2(2/'$"8"/.*5"#('*%.$7-"'82%1.7+'-.#0"#1(2/'
.7(-.5"+
<
?"%52*)%.$1("+&'1#$181$72/+';).'*.++"++'4.()'.82%12#'2#$'("+(1-7/2%'(1++7"<
?"%52*)%.$1("+'7+72//,'2++75"'()"'1$"#(1(1"+'2#$'%./"+'.3'()"'0"#$"%+'()",'
;"%"'2++10#"$'(.'2('41%()
<
Y%7"')"%52*)%.$1(1+5'1+'=71("'%2%"<
\#("%+":'*".*/"')28"'("+("+'.%'.82%1"+'47('#.('4.()<
A27+"$'4,')10)'/"8"/+'.3'2#$%.0"#+
AB?'5.%"'`4.,/1C"`'1#'(.,'-).1-"+'2#$'200%"++18"#"++
A.#0"#1(2/'2$%"#2/'),*"%*/2+12'RAB?S&'5.+('-.55.#'3"52/"'1#("%+":'-.#$1(1.#6'
1#';)1-)'2'0"#"(1-'3"52/"')2+'1#("%#2/'3"52/"'+":72/'+(%7-(7%"+'2#$'
52+-7/1#1G"$'":("%#2/' 0"#1(2/+
<
B#$%.0"#'1#+"#+1(181(,'+,#$%.5"&'/.;"%'()2#'#.%52/'*%"#2(2/'+"#+1(181(,'(.'
2#$%.0"#+6'0"#1(2/+'$.'#.('4"-.5"'#.%52//,'52+-7/1#1G"$
<
_.51#1-2#'%"474/1-'+,#$%.5"&'0"#"(1-'"#G,5"'$1+.%$"%'()2('*%"8"#(+'
("+(.+("%.#"'3%.5'52+-7/1#1G1#0'()"'":("%#2/' 0"#1(2/12
<
?%&+"#(%$3(?+"&+"#
!"#$"%'$,+*).%12&'2'+"#+"'.3'1#-.#0%71(,'4"(;""#'2++10#"$'+":'2#$'0"#$"%'
1$"#(1(,'()2('-27+"+'+10#131-2#('$1+(%"++
<
Y)"%"'57+('4"'2'52%C"$'$133"%"#-"'4"(;""#'2'*"%+.#X+'":*%"++1.#'2#$'
":*"%1"#-"' .3'0"#$"%'2#$'()"'0"#$"%'.()"%+';.7/$'2++10#')15'.%')"%'1#'.%$"%'
3.%'2'*"%+.#'(.'4"'$120#.+"$';1()'0"#$"%'$,+*).%12
<
!"#$"%'#.#-.#3.%51(,'1+'#.('1#'1(+"/3'2'5"#(2/'$1+.%$"%'2#$'()2('()"'$120#.+1+'.3'
0"#$"%'$,+*).%12'1+'$"*"#$"#('.#'()"'*"%+.#'":*%"++1#0'+10#131-2#('$1+(%"++'
24.7('()"1%'0"#$"%'+(2(7+
<
<#$3#"(,>2@5/"-%
\('1+'#.('5.%"'-.55.#'3.%'1#("%8"#(1.#+'2#$'+"%81-"+'3.%'0"#$"%'#.#N
-.#3.%51#0'-)1/$%"#'2#$'()"1%'3251/1"+'(.'(2C"'2'+7**.%(18"'2**%.2-)'()2('
2331%5+'2'-)1/$X+'0"#$"%'1$"#(1(,'%2()"%'()2#'2(("5*(1#0'(.'-)2#0"'1(
<
<#$3#"(?/$A9/$./"1-$B(95-'3"#$
Y%2#+0"#$"%a(%2#+&'2'*"%+.#';).+"'0"#$"%'1$"#(1(,'1+'$133"%"#('3%.5'()"1%'
2++10#"$'+":'2('41%()
<
Y%2#+1(1.#1#0&'()"'2-(181(1"+'()2('+.5"'(%2#+'*".*/"'52,'7+"'(.'4"01#'/181#0'2+'
()"'0"#$"%';1()';)1-)'()",'1$"#(13,'%2()"%'()2#'()"'0"#$"%'()",';"%"'2++10#"$'
2('41%()
<
A2#'7#$"%0.').%5.#"'(%"2(5"#(+'2#$'+7%0"%,'(.'-%"2("'()"'2**"2%2#-"'.3'()"'
":("%#2/'0"#1(2/+'(,*1-2/'.3'()"'0"#$"%'()",'1$"#(13,'()"5+"/8"+';1()
<
B3("%'+7%0"%,6'*".*/"'-2#'*2%(1-1*2("'1#'+":72/'2-(181(,'2#$'"8"#'2((21#'.%02+5<
Y)",'":*"%1"#-"' 1#-.#0%71(,'4"(;""#'()"1%'0"#1(2/'2#2(.5,'2#$'()"1%'0"#$"%'
1$"#(1(,6'2/().70)'()",')28"'()"'2#2(.51-'0"#1(2/12' .3'.#"'+":6'()",'3""/'()2('
()",X%"'5"54"%'.3'2#.()"%
<
Q"#';).'2%"'":(%"5"/,'3"51#1#"&'02,'5"#';).'2%"#X('37//,'+2(1+31"$'4,'
+":72/'2-(181(,';1()'.()"%'5"#
Q"#';).'2%"'+":72//,'2%.7+"$'4,'()"'1$"2'.3'4"-.51#0';.5"#&'
27(.0,#"*)1/1-'R$"+-%1*(18"'.3'(%2#+0"#$"%'5"#';).'2%"'+":72//,'
+(157/2("$'4,'32#(2+1"+'()2('()"1%'.;#'4.$1"+'2%"'3"52/"S'.%'+":72//,'
+(157/2("$'4,'32#(2+1"+'()2('()"1%'.;#'4.$1"+'2%"'3"52/"
>.5"'5"#';).'+""C'(.'4"-.5"';.5"#'("#$'(.'32//'1#(.'.()"%'-2("0.%1"+&'<
b"+"2%-)'+700"+(+'()2('(%2#+0"#$"%'*".*/"'7+72//,'+).;'-%.++N0"#$"%'
*%"3"%"#-"+'1#'*/2,'2#$'$%"++'$7%1#0'"2%/,'-)1/$)..$
<
6"%$2B#$3#"(CD6"%$2DE
c13"(15"').%5.#"'(%"2(5"#(+<
A27+"+'32((,'$"*.+1(+'(.'$"8"/.*'1#'()"'4%"2+(+'2#$')1*+6'+.3("#'()"'+C1#'
2#$'1#)141(+'0%.;()'.3'()"'4"2%$
Q2/"'(.'3"52/"'(%2#+'*"%+.#'%"-"18"+'"+(%.0"#<
d%.5.("+'52/"'+"-.#$2%,'+":'-)2%2-("%1+(1-+
e.1-"'$""*"#+6')21%'4"-.5"+'$1+(%147("$'2--.%$1#0'(.'()"'52/"'*2(("%#6'
57+-/"+'"#/2%0"'2#$'()"'32((,'$"*.+1(+'1#'()"'4%"2+(+'2#$')1*+'2%"'/.+(
A/1(.%1+'52,'0%.;'5.%"'*%.51#"#(
Z"52/"'(.'52/"'(%2#+'*"%+.#'%"-"18"+'2#$%.0"#+<
Q2/"'(.'3"52/"'-2#'0.'()%.70)'*).#.+7%0"%,'(.'%21+"'()"'*1(-)'.3'()"'8.1-"<
!"#$"%'%"2++10#5"#('1+'/2%0"/,'-.+5"(1-<
d)2//.*/2+(,&'+7%01-2/'%"-%"2(1#0'.3'2#'2%(131-12/'*"#1+<
Gender&Reassignment
Q.+('%"*.%(+'.3'(%2#+'*".*/"+X'*.+(.*"%2(18"'2$U7+(5"#(+'2%"'*.+1(18"<
Y)"%"'2%"'*%.0%25+'()2(')"/*'(%2#+'*".*/"'-.5"'(.'("%5+';1()'()"5+"/8"+'2#$'
2$U7+('(.'/181#0'1#'2'+.-1"(,'1#';)1-)'()",'.3("#'3""'7#;"/-.5"
<
Surgical&Outcomes
>("%".(,*"&'2'31:"$6'-.#8"#(1.#2/'1$"2'24.7('2'0%.7*'.3'*".*/"<
!"#$"%'%./"+&'-.5*/":'-/7+("%+'.3';2,'52/"+'2#$'3"52/"+'2%"'":*"-("$' (.'
4")28"
<
<#$3#"(F/'#2(%$3()&#"#/&>@#2
>":1+5&'()"'*%"U7$0"5"#('()2('2'*"%+.#';1//'*.++"++'-"%(21#'(%21(+'4"-27+"'.3'
0"#$"%
<
)#*-21
Q2/"+')28"'4""#'3.7#$'(.'4")28"'5.%"'200%"++18"/,'()2#'3"52/"+<
Z"52/"+'2%"'/1C"/,'(.'2-('200%"++18"/,'7#$"%'-"%(21#'-.#$1(1.#+<
Y)"'%2("'.3'200%"++1.#'25.#0'01%/+'+""5+'(.')28"'1#-%"2+"$'1#'%"-"#(',"2%+<
!"#$"%'b./"+'2#$'B00%"++1.#
!"#$"%'(,*1#0<
Y)"'*%.-"++'4,';)1-)'2'-)1/$'2-=71%"+'4")281.7%+'$""5"$'2**%.*%12("'3.%')1+'.%'
)"%'0"#$"%
<
<#$3#"(6>@-$B
W1./.01-2/'81";+'.#'0"#$"%'(,*1#0'(.'3.-7+'.#'()"'%./"+'.3'0"#"(1-+'2#$'*%"#2(2/'
1#3/7"#-"+'1#'*%"$1+*.+1#0'5"#'2#$';.5"#'(.'0"#$"%N/1#C"$'4")281.7%'*2(("%#+
<
W1./.01-2/'d"%+*"-(18"+
L"'*.++"++'()"'0"#"(1-'%"5#2#(+'.3'(%21(+'()2(')"/*"$'.7%'2#-"+(.%+'+7%818"'2#$'
%"*%.$7-"
<
B--.%$1#0'(.'"8./7(1.#2%,'*"%+*"-(18"6'5"#X+'(%2$1(1.#2/'%./"+'2+')7#("%+'2#$'
;2%%1.%+'2#$';.5"#X+'%./"+'2+'-2%"018"%+'2#$'02()"%"%+'.3'3%71(+'2#$'8"0"(24/"+'
<
Y)"'"8./7(1.#2%,'*"%+*"-(18"'1+'+(""*"$'1#'-.#(%.8"%+,<
\5*/1"+'()2('+("%".(,*1-2/'0"#$"%'%./"+'%"3/"-('()"'#2(7%2/'.%$"%'.3'()1#0+<
>.5"'3"51#1+('2#$'=7""%'()".%1+(+'2%07"'()2('()"'"8./7(1.#2%,'":*/2#2(1.#'3.%'
0"#$"%'$133"%"#-"+'1#'4")281.7%'+"%8"+'2+'2#'":-7+"'3.%'%2(1.#2/1G1#0'0"#$"%'
1#"=72/1(,
<
The&Evolutionary&Perspective
b10)('4%21#6'+*"-12/1G"$'(.'*"%3.%5'81+72/'2#$'+*2(12/'(2+C+<
c"3('4%21#6'5.%"'-%1(1-2/' 3.%'8"%42/'37#-(1.#+<
>":72/'$133"%"#(12(1.#'.3'()"'4%21#'52,'":*/21#'5"#X+'+7*"%1.%1(,'2('+*2(12/'
%"/2(1.#+'(2+C+
<
Y"+(.+("%.#"'1#'()"'4%21#+'.3'52/"'3"(7+"+'+*7%+'0%"2("%'0%.;()'.3'()"'%10)('
)"51+*)"%"'2#$'+/.;+'()"'%2("'.3'0%.;()'.3'()"'/"3(')"51+*)"%"
<
d%"3"%"#-"+'3.%'0"#$"%N(,*"$'(.,+'510)('4"'2('/"2+('1#'*2%('1#4.%#'2#$'+).7/$'
()"%"3.%"'"5"%0"'1#'-)1/$%"#'4"3.%"'()",X%"'+"/3'2;2%"'.3'()"1%'0"#$"%'1$"#(1(1"+
<
Prenatal&Brain&Organization
A)1/$%"#'4"-.5"'2;2%"'.3'0"#$"%'%./"'+("%".(,*"+'4,'()"'("#$"%'20"'.3'(;.'(.'
()%""
<
d+,-)./.01-2/'d"%+*"-(18"+
["$1*7+'-.5*/":&'1#'*+,-).2#2/,(1-'()".%,6'2'-.#3/1-('.3'()"'*)2//1-'+(20"'1#'
;)1-)'()"'4.,';1+)"+'(.'*.++"++')1+'5.()"%'+":72//,'2#$'*"%-"18"+')1+'32()"%'2+'
2'%182/'3.%')"%'/.8"
<
Y)"'-.5*/":'1+'%"+./8"$'4,'()"'-)1/$X+'3.%+2C1#0'1#-"+(7.7+';1+)"+'3.%'()"'
*2%"#('.3'()"'.()"%'0"#$"%'2#$'1$"#(13,1#0';1()'()"'*2%"#('.3'()"'+25"'0"#$"%
<
Y)%.70)'1$"#(131-2(1.#';1()'()"'+25"'0"#$"%'*2%"#(6'()"'-)1/$'-.5"+'(.'$"8"/.*'
4")281.7%+'()2('2%"'(,*1-2//,'2++.-12("$';1()'()2('0"#$"%
<
Psychoanalytic&theory
T:*/21#'()"'$"8"/.*5"#('.3'0"#$"%N(,*"$'4")281.7%'1#'("%5+'.3'*%.-"++"+'+7-)'
2+'.4+"%82(1.#2/'/"2%#1#06'1$"#(131-2(1.#'2#$'+.-12/1G2(1.#
<
>.-12/1G2(1.#&'()"'*%.-"++'4,';)1-)'2#'1#$181$72/'1+'071$"$'1#(.'+.-12//,'
2--"*(24/"'4")281.7%'*2(("%#+'()%.70)'1#3.%52(1.#6'%";2%$+'2#$'*7#1+)5"#(
<
Q.%"'5.()"%+';.%C1#0'.7(+1$"'()"').5"
d2%"#(+'"#-.7%20"'$270)("%+'(.'3.-7+'.#'-2%"%+'2#$'"#020"'1#'+(%"#7.7+'
*),+1-2/'2-(181(1"+
W.,+')28"'32()"%+';).'(2C"'/2%0"%'%./"+'1#'-)1/$-2%"' 2#$').7+")./$'
%"+*.#+141/1(1"+'
d2%"#(2/'%./"+'1#'0"#$"%'(,*1#0'2%"'-)2#01#0<
Social&Cognitive&Theory
!"#$"%'(,*1#0'1+'#.('()"'*%.$7-('.3'"#81%.#5"#(2/'1#3/7"#-"+'()2('5"-)2#1-2//,'
+(25*'1#'0"#$"%N2**%.*%12("'4")281.7%6'%2()"%'-)1/$%"#'()"5+"/8"+'*/2,'2#'
2-(18"'%./"
<
>-)"52&'2'-.#-"*('.%'2';2,'.3'1#("%*%"(1#0'":*"%1"#-"'.%'*%.-"++1#0'
1#3.%52(1.#
<
!"#$"%'+(241/1(,&'()"'-.#-"*('()2('*".*/"'%"(21#'()"1%'0"#$"%+'3.%'2'/13"(15"<
!"#$"%'-.#+(2#-,&'()"'-.#-"*('()2('*".*/"X+'0"#$"%+'$.'#.('-)2#0"6'"8"#'13'
()",'/2()"%'()"1%'$%"++'.%'4")281.7%
<
Cognitive-Developmental&Theory
!"#$"%'+-)"52&'2'-/7+("%'.3'5"#(2/'%"*%"+"#(2(1.#+'24.7('52/"'2#$'3"52/"''
*),+1-2/'=72/1(1"+6'4")281.7%+'2#$'*"%+.#2/1(,'(%21(+
<
[#-"'-)1/$%"#'2-=71%"'0"#$"%'+-)"52+6'()",'4"01#'(.'U7$0"'()"5+"/8"+'1#'
2--.%$2#-"';1()'(%21(+'-.#+1$"%"$'2**%.*%12("'(.'()"1%'3"#$"%+
<
Gender-schema&theory
Y%2$1(1.#2/'+":72/'+-%1*(&'2'+":72/'+-%1*('42+"$'.#'+("%".(,*1-2/'+(2#$2%$+'3.%'
+":72/'4")281.7%'()2('$1-(2("+'()2('52/"+'(2C"'2#'2++"%(18"'2#$'2-(18"'%./"'1#'
)"("%.+":72/'1#("%2-(1.#';)1/"';.5"#'(2C"'2'%"-"*(18"'2#$'*2++18"'%./"
<
A7/(7%2/'":*"-(2(1.#'()2('5"#'2%"'1#1(12(.%'2#$';.5"#'2%"'02("C""*"%+'1+'
"54"$$"$';1()1#'()"'(%2$1(1.#2/'+":72/'+-%1*('()2('5"#'2%"'+":72//,'200%"++18"'
2#$';.5"#'2%"'+":72//,'*2++18"
<
>("%".(,*"+'328.7%'5"#X+'+":72/'*%"3"%"#-"+6'$"#,1#0';.5"#'()"'.**.%(7#1(,'
(.'018"'2#$'%"-"18"'()"1%'*%"3"%%"$'C1#$+'.3'+(157/2(1.#
<
<#$3#"(F/'#2(%$3()#*+%'(G#5%8-/+"
Q"#'2%"'5.%"'/1C"/,'(.')28"'"#020"$'1#')"("%.+":72/'1#("%-.7%+"'()2#';.5"#6'
()"'0"#$"%'$133"%"#-"'1+'+52//'2#$'$"-%"2+1#0
<
_133"%"#-"+'1#'()"'*"%-"#(20"+'.3'5"#'2#$';.5"#';).')28"'"#020"$'1#'.%2/'
+":'2%"'2/+.'+52//
<
W.()'5"#'2#$';.5"#X+'2((1(7$"+'(.;2%$'*%"52%1(2/'+":')28"'2/+.'4"-.5"'5.%"'
2--"*(1#0'2#$'0"#$"%'$133"%"#-"'1#'()"+"'2((1(7$"+'+52//"%
<
_133"%"#-"'4"(;""#'/13"(15"' +":72/'*2%(#"%+'4"(;""#'52/"'2#$'3"52/"'1+'=71("'
+52//
<
Q"#'2%"'5.%"'/1C"/,'(.'52+(7%42("'()2#';.5"#<
c2%0"+('0"#$"%'$133"%"#-"';2+'()"'7+"'.3'+":72//,'":*/1-1(' 52("%12/<
Q"#';"%"'5.%"'/1C"/,'()2#';.5"#'(.'2--"++'5202G1#"+6'81$".+'2#$'()"'1#("%#"('
3.%'+":72/'-.#("#(
<
B((1(7$"'2#$'W")281.7%'_133"%"#-"+
L.5"#';1()'52#,'+":72/'*2%(#"%+'2%"'5.%"')2%+)/,'U7$0"$'()2#'5"#';1()'
52#,'*2%(#"%+
<
L.5"#';"%"'5.%"'+"8"%"'()2#'5"#'1#'U7$01#0';.5"#X+'+":72/'4")281.7%<
Q"#')2$'0%"2("%'+":72/'3%""$.5'()2#';.5"#<
L.5"#'().70)('1(';2+'"2+1"%'3.%'5"#'(.')28"'52#,'*2%(#"%+'2#$'"#020"'1#'
-2+72/'+":6'5"#'3"/('()2(';.5"#'2#$'0%"2("%'3%""$.5'4"-27+"'()",';"%"'()"'
.#"+';).'$"-1$"$';)"()"%'+":';.7/$'.--7%
<
W.()'0"#$"%+';"%"'5.%"'/1C"/,'(.'$1+-.7%20"'2'3"52/"'3%1"#$'3%.5'$2(1#0'2'52#'
;).X$')2$'52#,'+":72/'*2%(#"%+'()2#'(.'$1+-.7%20"'2'52/"'3%1"#$'3%.5'$2(1#0'2'
)10)/,'":*"%1"#-"$' ;.52#
<
The&sexual&double&standard
!"#$"%'+("%".(,*"+')28"')"281/,'1#3/7"#-"$'()"'(,*"'.3'%"/2(1.#2/' 2#$'+":72/'
2$81-"'*%.81$"$'(.'-.7*/"+'
<
L2+'2++75"$'()2(';.5"#'"#("%"$'52%%120"'2+'1#":*"%1"#-"$' 81%01#+';).'
/2-C"$'2#,'C#.;/"$0"'.3'+":72/'*/"2+7%"
Z1%+('*2%('.3'()"'(;"#(1"()'-"#(7%,6'/1("%2(7%"'*%"+"#("$'()"')7+42#$'2+'()"'
;13"X+'(7(.%'2#$'()"'1#1(12(.%'.3'+":6'2#$'()"';13"'2+'()"'*2++18"'+(7$"#(
<
_7%1#0'()"'+":72/'%"8./7(1.#'.3'()"'PfOH+6'+":';2+'#.'/.#0"%'(1"$'(.'52%%120"'
2#$'52%%120"'52#72/+';"%"'%"#25"$'+":'52#72/+
<
!"#$"%'2#$'+":'B$81-"'c1("%2(7%"
gHh'.3';.5"#'-/215"$'(.'4"')10)/,'+":72/<
\5*.%(2#('3.%'+.-1"(,'(.'%"-.0#1G"'()2('52#,';.5"#'2%"')10)/,'1#("%"+("$'1#'+":'
2#$'1#'.4(21#1#0'+":72/'*/"2+7%"
<
?10)/,'>":72/'L.5"#
Q2+-7/1#1(,'2#$'3"51#1#1(,'-.#+(1(7("'+"*2%2("'*"%+.#2/1(,'$15"#+1.#+<
d+,-)./.01-2/'2#$%.0,#,&'2'+(2("'-)2%2-("%1G"$'4,'*.++"++1.#'.3'4.()'
+("%".(,*1-2/'52+-7/1#"'(%21(+'2#$'+("%".(,*1-2/'3"51#1#"'(%21(+
<
d".*/"';).'2%"'*+,-)./.01-2//,'2#$%.0,#.7+'52,'4"'-2*24/"'.3'+755.#1#0'7*'
2';1$"%'%2#0"'.3'52+-7/1#"'2#$'3"51#1#"'(%21(+'(.'5""('()"'$"52#$+'.3'82%1.7+'
+1(72(1.#+'2#$'(.'4"(("%'":*%"++'()"1%'$"+1%"+'2#$'(2/"#(+
<
d".*/"';).'.**.+"'()"'-.#+(%21#(+'.3'(%2$1(1.#2/'0"#$"%'%./"+'52,'*"%-"18"'
*+,-)./.01-2/'2#$%.0,#,'4"-27+"'1(+'$"31#"$'1#'("%5+'.3'52+-7/1#"'2#$'3"51#1#"'
3"#$"%'%./"+
<
>.5"'4"#"31(+'.3'*+,-)./.01-2/'2#$%.0,#.7+'*".*/"'("#$'(.')28"')10)"%'+"/3N
"+(""5'2#$'(.'4"'0"#"%2//,'4"(("%'2$U7+("$'*+,-)./.01-2//,'()2#'*".*/"';).'2%"'
3"51#1#"'.%'7#$133"%(12("$9
<
!2>45/'/B-4%'(:$3"/B>$>
Chapter(5
[-(.4"%'PD6'DHPV
I&MI'dQ

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

!"#$"%&'()"'*+,-)./.01-2/'+(2("'.3'4"1#0'3"52/"'.%'52/"6'2+'1#3/7"#-"$'4,'
-7/(7%2/'-.#-"*(+'.3'0"#$"%'2**%.*%12("'4")281.7%9'!"#$"%'1+'$1+(1#-('3%.5'
2#2(.51-'+":6';)1-)'1+'42+"$'.#'()"'*),+1-2/'$133"%"#-"+'4"(;""#'3"52/"+'2#$'
52/"+
<
!"#$"%'(,*1#0&'()"'*%.-"++'4,';)1-)'-)1/$%"#'2-=71%"'4")281.7%+'$""5"$'
2**%.*%12("'3.%'()"1%'+":
<
>":72/'$133"%"#(12(1.#&'()"'*%.-"++'4,';)1-)'52/"+'2#$'3"52/"+'$"8"/.*'$1+(1#-('
%"*%.$7-(18"'2#2(.5,
<
?.('+"5"#'@'52/"
A./$'+"5"#'@'3"52/"
B%1+(.(/"'4"/1"8"$'2#2(.51-2/'$133"%"#-"';2+'$7"'(.')"2('.3'()"'+"5"#'2('(15"'
.3'+":72/'%"/2(1.#+
<
A)%.5.+.5"&'2'%.$/1C"'+(%7-(7%"'3.7#$'1#'()"'#7-/"7+'.3'"8"%,'/181#0'-"//9'
A2%%1"+'0"#"(1-'-.$"'1#'()"'3.%5'.3'0"#"+
<
DE'-)%.5.+.5"+'3%.5'()"'52/"'-.541#"+';1()'DE'-)%.5.+.5"+'3%.5'()"'
3"52/"'*2%"#(
<
F,0.("&'2'3"%(1/1G"$'.875'<
F,0.("'2('()"'4"01##1#0'1+'.#/,'H9HI-5'/.#0<
JJ'@'3"52/"
JK'@'52/"
DE%$'*21%'.3'-)%.5.+.5"+'1+'()"'+":'-)%.5.+.5"<
B3("%'3"%(1/1G2(1.#6'()"'G,0.("'$181$"+'%"*"2("$/,<
B('24.7('E';""C+6'2'*%151(18"')"2%('4"01#+'(.'$%18"'4/..$'()%.70)'()"'
"54%,.#1-'4/..$+(%"25
<
L""C'M'N;""C'O6'"54%,.'1+'H9M'NP-5'/.#06')2+'2'*21%'.3'+":72//,'
7#$133"%"#(12("$'0.#2$+6'(;.'+"(+'.3'*%151(18"'$7-('+(%7-(7%"+'-2//"$'()"'
Q7//"%12#'R3"52/"S'$7-(+'2#$'()"'L./3312#'R52/"S'$7-(+6'2#$'*%151(18"'":("%#2/'
0"#1(2/+';).+"'+":'-2##.('4"'81+72//,'$1+(1#071+)"$
<
T54%,.&'()"'+(20"'.3'*%"#2(2/'$"8"/.*5"#('()2('4"01#+';1()'15*/2#(2(1.#'.3'2'
3"%(1/1G"$'.875'1#'()"'7("%7+'2#$'-.#-/7$"+';1()'$"8"/.*5"#('.3'()"'52U.%'
.%02#'+,+("5+'2('24.7('(;.'5.#()+'23("%'-.#-"*(1.#
<
B('V';""C+6'0"#"(1-'-.$"'4"01#+'(.'2++"%('1(+"/3
<
W,'V';""C'.3'*%"#2(2/'$"8"/.*5"#(6'+(%2#$+'.3'(1++7"'4"01#'(.'.%02#1G"'1#(.'
+"51#13"%.7+'(747/"+'
<
B4.7('PH';""C+6'3.%"%7##"%+'.3'3.//1-/"+'()2(';1//'4"2%'.82'2%"'#.('3.7#$'7#(1/'
()"'3"(2/'+(20"'.3'$"8"/.*5"#(
<
L""C'PPNPD'.82%1"+'4"01#'(.'3.%5
<
!"#$%&%'()#*+%'(,-..#"#$&-%&-/$
B#$%.0"#+&'52/"'+":').%5.#"+
<
L1().7('2#$%.0"#+6';"X$'2//'$"8"/.*'3"52/"'":("%#2/' %"*%.$7-(18"'.%02#+
<
Y"+(.+("%.#"&'()"'52/"'+":').%5.#"'()2('3.+("%+'$"8"/.*5"#('.3'52/"'+":'
-)2%2-("%1+(1-+'2#$'1+'-.##"-("$';1()'()"'+":'$%18"
<
Z"52/"'+":').%5.#"+'2%"'-%7-12/'1#'*74"%(,'47('2%"'#.('1#8./8"$'1#'3"(2/'+":72/'
$133"%"#(12(1.#
<
)#*(0/"1/$#2(%$3()#*+%'(,-..#"#$&-%&-/$
Y)"'("+("+'2#$'.82%1"+'$"8"/.*')10)'1#'()"'24$.51#2/'-281(,'
<
PH';""C+6'()",'$"+-"#$'2#$'2%"'"8"#';1()'()"'7**"%'"$0"'.3'()"'*"/81+
<
[82%1"+'%"521#'3.%'%"+('.3'*%"#2(2/'*"%1.$6'/2("%'%.(2("+'2#$'37%()"%'$"+-"#$+'(.'
()"1%'2$7/('*.+1(1.#+
<
I'5.#()+6'("+("+'$"+-"#$'1#(.'+-%.(2/'+2-'()%.70)'1#071#2/'-2#2/6';)1-)'-/.+"+
<
\#071#2/'-2#2/&'2'3"(2/'-2#2/'()2('-.##"-(+'()"'+-%.(75'2#$'()"'("+("+'2//.;1#0'
()"'/2(("%'(.'$"+-"#$
<
]+72//,'(%"2("$'()%.70)'+7%0"%,'.%').%5.#2/'()"%2*,
?10)"%'%1+C'3.%'-2#-"%
>*"%5'*%.$7-(1.#'1+'15*21%"$
A%,*(.%-)1$1+5&'2'-.#$1(1.#'1#';)1-)'2('/"2+('.#"'.3'()"'("+("+'321/+'(.'$"+-"#$
<
,#24#$&(/.(&5#(6#2&#2(%$3(78%"-#2
Z21/'(.'$"8"/.*'2**%.*%12("'+"-.#$2%,'+":'-)2%2-("%1+(1-+'
T#/2%0"$'4%"2+(+6'*..%'57+-7/2%'$"8"/.*5"#(
Z21/'(.'*%.$7-"'+*"%56'1#3"%(1/"
Q1/$'5"#(2/'%"(2%$2(1.#
^/1#"3"/("%X+'+,#$%.5"&'52/"')2+'2#'":(%2'J'+":'-)%.5.+.5"'RJJK'*2(("%#S
<
Q2,'#.('#2(7%2//,'7#$"%0.'*74"%(,
Y7%#"%X+'+,#$%.5"&'2'3"52/"')2+'U7+('.#"'J'-)%.5.+.5"'RJ'*2(("%#S
<
Y)"'4%21#'7#$"%0."+'*%"#2(2/'+":72/'$133"%"#(12(1.#
<
Y"+(.+("%.#"'-27+"+'),*.()2/257+'(.'4"-.5"'1#+"#+1(18"'(.'"+(%.0"#<
>"#+1(181(,'(.'"+(%.0"#'1+'15*.%(2#('1#'%"07/2(1.#'.3'()"'5"#+(%72/'-,-/"'23("%'
*74"%(,
<
)#*(95"/1/2/1#(:;$/"1%'-&-#2
A1+0"#$"%&'+":'()",';"%"'2++10#"$'2('41%()'52(-)"+'()"1%'0"#$"%'1$"#(1(,<
<#$3#"(=3#$&-&>
_."+'#.('2--7%2("/,'%"3/"-('()"'$18"%+"'%2#0"'.3'0"#$"%'1$"#(1(1"+'()2('
2-(72//,'":1+(
!"#$"%'41#2%,&'+.-12/'+,+("5'()2('$"31#"+'3"#$"%'2+'"1()"%'+(%1-(/,'52/"'.%'
3"52/"
<
?.%5.#2/'32-(.%+'$7%1#0'*%"#2(2/'$"8"/.*5"#('*%.$7-"'82%1.7+'-.#0"#1(2/'
.7(-.5"+
<
?"%52*)%.$1("+&'1#$181$72/+';).'*.++"++'4.()'.82%12#'2#$'("+(1-7/2%'(1++7"<
?"%52*)%.$1("+'7+72//,'2++75"'()"'1$"#(1(1"+'2#$'%./"+'.3'()"'0"#$"%+'()",'
;"%"'2++10#"$'(.'2('41%()
<
Y%7"')"%52*)%.$1(1+5'1+'=71("'%2%"<
\#("%+":'*".*/"')28"'("+("+'.%'.82%1"+'47('#.('4.()<
A27+"$'4,')10)'/"8"/+'.3'2#$%.0"#+
AB?'5.%"'`4.,/1C"`'1#'(.,'-).1-"+'2#$'200%"++18"#"++
A.#0"#1(2/'2$%"#2/'),*"%*/2+12'RAB?S&'5.+('-.55.#'3"52/"'1#("%+":'-.#$1(1.#6'
1#';)1-)'2'0"#"(1-'3"52/"')2+'1#("%#2/'3"52/"'+":72/'+(%7-(7%"+'2#$'
52+-7/1#1G"$'":("%#2/' 0"#1(2/+
<
B#$%.0"#'1#+"#+1(181(,'+,#$%.5"&'/.;"%'()2#'#.%52/'*%"#2(2/'+"#+1(181(,'(.'
2#$%.0"#+6'0"#1(2/+'$.'#.('4"-.5"'#.%52//,'52+-7/1#1G"$
<
_.51#1-2#'%"474/1-'+,#$%.5"&'0"#"(1-'"#G,5"'$1+.%$"%'()2('*%"8"#(+'
("+(.+("%.#"'3%.5'52+-7/1#1G1#0'()"'":("%#2/' 0"#1(2/12
<
?%&+"#(%$3(?+"&+"#
!"#$"%'$,+*).%12&'2'+"#+"'.3'1#-.#0%71(,'4"(;""#'2++10#"$'+":'2#$'0"#$"%'
1$"#(1(,'()2('-27+"+'+10#131-2#('$1+(%"++
<
Y)"%"'57+('4"'2'52%C"$'$133"%"#-"'4"(;""#'2'*"%+.#X+'":*%"++1.#'2#$'
":*"%1"#-"' .3'0"#$"%'2#$'()"'0"#$"%'.()"%+';.7/$'2++10#')15'.%')"%'1#'.%$"%'
3.%'2'*"%+.#'(.'4"'$120#.+"$';1()'0"#$"%'$,+*).%12
<
!"#$"%'#.#-.#3.%51(,'1+'#.('1#'1(+"/3'2'5"#(2/'$1+.%$"%'2#$'()2('()"'$120#.+1+'.3'
0"#$"%'$,+*).%12'1+'$"*"#$"#('.#'()"'*"%+.#'":*%"++1#0'+10#131-2#('$1+(%"++'
24.7('()"1%'0"#$"%'+(2(7+
<
<#$3#"(,>2@5/"-%
\('1+'#.('5.%"'-.55.#'3.%'1#("%8"#(1.#+'2#$'+"%81-"+'3.%'0"#$"%'#.#N
-.#3.%51#0'-)1/$%"#'2#$'()"1%'3251/1"+'(.'(2C"'2'+7**.%(18"'2**%.2-)'()2('
2331%5+'2'-)1/$X+'0"#$"%'1$"#(1(,'%2()"%'()2#'2(("5*(1#0'(.'-)2#0"'1(
<
<#$3#"(?/$A9/$./"1-$B(95-'3"#$
Y%2#+0"#$"%a(%2#+&'2'*"%+.#';).+"'0"#$"%'1$"#(1(,'1+'$133"%"#('3%.5'()"1%'
2++10#"$'+":'2('41%()
<
Y%2#+1(1.#1#0&'()"'2-(181(1"+'()2('+.5"'(%2#+'*".*/"'52,'7+"'(.'4"01#'/181#0'2+'
()"'0"#$"%';1()';)1-)'()",'1$"#(13,'%2()"%'()2#'()"'0"#$"%'()",';"%"'2++10#"$'
2('41%()
<
A2#'7#$"%0.').%5.#"'(%"2(5"#(+'2#$'+7%0"%,'(.'-%"2("'()"'2**"2%2#-"'.3'()"'
":("%#2/'0"#1(2/+'(,*1-2/'.3'()"'0"#$"%'()",'1$"#(13,'()"5+"/8"+';1()
<
B3("%'+7%0"%,6'*".*/"'-2#'*2%(1-1*2("'1#'+":72/'2-(181(,'2#$'"8"#'2((21#'.%02+5<
Y)",'":*"%1"#-"' 1#-.#0%71(,'4"(;""#'()"1%'0"#1(2/'2#2(.5,'2#$'()"1%'0"#$"%'
1$"#(1(,6'2/().70)'()",')28"'()"'2#2(.51-'0"#1(2/12' .3'.#"'+":6'()",'3""/'()2('
()",X%"'5"54"%'.3'2#.()"%
<
Q"#';).'2%"'":(%"5"/,'3"51#1#"&'02,'5"#';).'2%"#X('37//,'+2(1+31"$'4,'
+":72/'2-(181(,';1()'.()"%'5"#
Q"#';).'2%"'+":72//,'2%.7+"$'4,'()"'1$"2'.3'4"-.51#0';.5"#&'
27(.0,#"*)1/1-'R$"+-%1*(18"'.3'(%2#+0"#$"%'5"#';).'2%"'+":72//,'
+(157/2("$'4,'32#(2+1"+'()2('()"1%'.;#'4.$1"+'2%"'3"52/"S'.%'+":72//,'
+(157/2("$'4,'32#(2+1"+'()2('()"1%'.;#'4.$1"+'2%"'3"52/"
>.5"'5"#';).'+""C'(.'4"-.5"';.5"#'("#$'(.'32//'1#(.'.()"%'-2("0.%1"+&'<
b"+"2%-)'+700"+(+'()2('(%2#+0"#$"%'*".*/"'7+72//,'+).;'-%.++N0"#$"%'
*%"3"%"#-"+'1#'*/2,'2#$'$%"++'$7%1#0'"2%/,'-)1/$)..$
<
6"%$2B#$3#"(CD6"%$2DE
c13"(15"').%5.#"'(%"2(5"#(+<
A27+"+'32((,'$"*.+1(+'(.'$"8"/.*'1#'()"'4%"2+(+'2#$')1*+6'+.3("#'()"'+C1#'
2#$'1#)141(+'0%.;()'.3'()"'4"2%$
Q2/"'(.'3"52/"'(%2#+'*"%+.#'%"-"18"+'"+(%.0"#<
d%.5.("+'52/"'+"-.#$2%,'+":'-)2%2-("%1+(1-+
e.1-"'$""*"#+6')21%'4"-.5"+'$1+(%147("$'2--.%$1#0'(.'()"'52/"'*2(("%#6'
57+-/"+'"#/2%0"'2#$'()"'32((,'$"*.+1(+'1#'()"'4%"2+(+'2#$')1*+'2%"'/.+(
A/1(.%1+'52,'0%.;'5.%"'*%.51#"#(
Z"52/"'(.'52/"'(%2#+'*"%+.#'%"-"18"+'2#$%.0"#+<
Q2/"'(.'3"52/"'-2#'0.'()%.70)'*).#.+7%0"%,'(.'%21+"'()"'*1(-)'.3'()"'8.1-"<
!"#$"%'%"2++10#5"#('1+'/2%0"/,'-.+5"(1-<
d)2//.*/2+(,&'+7%01-2/'%"-%"2(1#0'.3'2#'2%(131-12/'*"#1+<
Gender&Reassignment
Q.+('%"*.%(+'.3'(%2#+'*".*/"+X'*.+(.*"%2(18"'2$U7+(5"#(+'2%"'*.+1(18"<
Y)"%"'2%"'*%.0%25+'()2(')"/*'(%2#+'*".*/"'-.5"'(.'("%5+';1()'()"5+"/8"+'2#$'
2$U7+('(.'/181#0'1#'2'+.-1"(,'1#';)1-)'()",'.3("#'3""'7#;"/-.5"
<
Surgical&Outcomes
>("%".(,*"&'2'31:"$6'-.#8"#(1.#2/'1$"2'24.7('2'0%.7*'.3'*".*/"<
!"#$"%'%./"+&'-.5*/":'-/7+("%+'.3';2,'52/"+'2#$'3"52/"+'2%"'":*"-("$' (.'
4")28"
<
<#$3#"(F/'#2(%$3()&#"#/&>@#2
>":1+5&'()"'*%"U7$0"5"#('()2('2'*"%+.#';1//'*.++"++'-"%(21#'(%21(+'4"-27+"'.3'
0"#$"%
<
)#*-21
Q2/"+')28"'4""#'3.7#$'(.'4")28"'5.%"'200%"++18"/,'()2#'3"52/"+<
Z"52/"+'2%"'/1C"/,'(.'2-('200%"++18"/,'7#$"%'-"%(21#'-.#$1(1.#+<
Y)"'%2("'.3'200%"++1.#'25.#0'01%/+'+""5+'(.')28"'1#-%"2+"$'1#'%"-"#(',"2%+<
!"#$"%'b./"+'2#$'B00%"++1.#
!"#$"%'(,*1#0<
Y)"'*%.-"++'4,';)1-)'2'-)1/$'2-=71%"+'4")281.7%+'$""5"$'2**%.*%12("'3.%')1+'.%'
)"%'0"#$"%
<
<#$3#"(6>@-$B
W1./.01-2/'81";+'.#'0"#$"%'(,*1#0'(.'3.-7+'.#'()"'%./"+'.3'0"#"(1-+'2#$'*%"#2(2/'
1#3/7"#-"+'1#'*%"$1+*.+1#0'5"#'2#$';.5"#'(.'0"#$"%N/1#C"$'4")281.7%'*2(("%#+
<
W1./.01-2/'d"%+*"-(18"+
L"'*.++"++'()"'0"#"(1-'%"5#2#(+'.3'(%21(+'()2(')"/*"$'.7%'2#-"+(.%+'+7%818"'2#$'
%"*%.$7-"
<
B--.%$1#0'(.'"8./7(1.#2%,'*"%+*"-(18"6'5"#X+'(%2$1(1.#2/'%./"+'2+')7#("%+'2#$'
;2%%1.%+'2#$';.5"#X+'%./"+'2+'-2%"018"%+'2#$'02()"%"%+'.3'3%71(+'2#$'8"0"(24/"+'
<
Y)"'"8./7(1.#2%,'*"%+*"-(18"'1+'+(""*"$'1#'-.#(%.8"%+,<
\5*/1"+'()2('+("%".(,*1-2/'0"#$"%'%./"+'%"3/"-('()"'#2(7%2/'.%$"%'.3'()1#0+<
>.5"'3"51#1+('2#$'=7""%'()".%1+(+'2%07"'()2('()"'"8./7(1.#2%,'":*/2#2(1.#'3.%'
0"#$"%'$133"%"#-"+'1#'4")281.7%'+"%8"+'2+'2#'":-7+"'3.%'%2(1.#2/1G1#0'0"#$"%'
1#"=72/1(,
<
The&Evolutionary&Perspective
b10)('4%21#6'+*"-12/1G"$'(.'*"%3.%5'81+72/'2#$'+*2(12/'(2+C+<
c"3('4%21#6'5.%"'-%1(1-2/' 3.%'8"%42/'37#-(1.#+<
>":72/'$133"%"#(12(1.#'.3'()"'4%21#'52,'":*/21#'5"#X+'+7*"%1.%1(,'2('+*2(12/'
%"/2(1.#+'(2+C+
<
Y"+(.+("%.#"'1#'()"'4%21#+'.3'52/"'3"(7+"+'+*7%+'0%"2("%'0%.;()'.3'()"'%10)('
)"51+*)"%"'2#$'+/.;+'()"'%2("'.3'0%.;()'.3'()"'/"3(')"51+*)"%"
<
d%"3"%"#-"+'3.%'0"#$"%N(,*"$'(.,+'510)('4"'2('/"2+('1#'*2%('1#4.%#'2#$'+).7/$'
()"%"3.%"'"5"%0"'1#'-)1/$%"#'4"3.%"'()",X%"'+"/3'2;2%"'.3'()"1%'0"#$"%'1$"#(1(1"+
<
Prenatal&Brain&Organization
A)1/$%"#'4"-.5"'2;2%"'.3'0"#$"%'%./"'+("%".(,*"+'4,'()"'("#$"%'20"'.3'(;.'(.'
()%""
<
d+,-)./.01-2/'d"%+*"-(18"+
["$1*7+'-.5*/":&'1#'*+,-).2#2/,(1-'()".%,6'2'-.#3/1-('.3'()"'*)2//1-'+(20"'1#'
;)1-)'()"'4.,';1+)"+'(.'*.++"++')1+'5.()"%'+":72//,'2#$'*"%-"18"+')1+'32()"%'2+'
2'%182/'3.%')"%'/.8"
<
Y)"'-.5*/":'1+'%"+./8"$'4,'()"'-)1/$X+'3.%+2C1#0'1#-"+(7.7+';1+)"+'3.%'()"'
*2%"#('.3'()"'.()"%'0"#$"%'2#$'1$"#(13,1#0';1()'()"'*2%"#('.3'()"'+25"'0"#$"%
<
Y)%.70)'1$"#(131-2(1.#';1()'()"'+25"'0"#$"%'*2%"#(6'()"'-)1/$'-.5"+'(.'$"8"/.*'
4")281.7%+'()2('2%"'(,*1-2//,'2++.-12("$';1()'()2('0"#$"%
<
Psychoanalytic&theory
T:*/21#'()"'$"8"/.*5"#('.3'0"#$"%N(,*"$'4")281.7%'1#'("%5+'.3'*%.-"++"+'+7-)'
2+'.4+"%82(1.#2/'/"2%#1#06'1$"#(131-2(1.#'2#$'+.-12/1G2(1.#
<
>.-12/1G2(1.#&'()"'*%.-"++'4,';)1-)'2#'1#$181$72/'1+'071$"$'1#(.'+.-12//,'
2--"*(24/"'4")281.7%'*2(("%#+'()%.70)'1#3.%52(1.#6'%";2%$+'2#$'*7#1+)5"#(
<
Q.%"'5.()"%+';.%C1#0'.7(+1$"'()"').5"
d2%"#(+'"#-.7%20"'$270)("%+'(.'3.-7+'.#'-2%"%+'2#$'"#020"'1#'+(%"#7.7+'
*),+1-2/'2-(181(1"+
W.,+')28"'32()"%+';).'(2C"'/2%0"%'%./"+'1#'-)1/$-2%"' 2#$').7+")./$'
%"+*.#+141/1(1"+'
d2%"#(2/'%./"+'1#'0"#$"%'(,*1#0'2%"'-)2#01#0<
Social&Cognitive&Theory
!"#$"%'(,*1#0'1+'#.('()"'*%.$7-('.3'"#81%.#5"#(2/'1#3/7"#-"+'()2('5"-)2#1-2//,'
+(25*'1#'0"#$"%N2**%.*%12("'4")281.7%6'%2()"%'-)1/$%"#'()"5+"/8"+'*/2,'2#'
2-(18"'%./"
<
>-)"52&'2'-.#-"*('.%'2';2,'.3'1#("%*%"(1#0'":*"%1"#-"'.%'*%.-"++1#0'
1#3.%52(1.#
<
!"#$"%'+(241/1(,&'()"'-.#-"*('()2('*".*/"'%"(21#'()"1%'0"#$"%+'3.%'2'/13"(15"<
!"#$"%'-.#+(2#-,&'()"'-.#-"*('()2('*".*/"X+'0"#$"%+'$.'#.('-)2#0"6'"8"#'13'
()",'/2()"%'()"1%'$%"++'.%'4")281.7%
<
Cognitive-Developmental&Theory
!"#$"%'+-)"52&'2'-/7+("%'.3'5"#(2/'%"*%"+"#(2(1.#+'24.7('52/"'2#$'3"52/"''
*),+1-2/'=72/1(1"+6'4")281.7%+'2#$'*"%+.#2/1(,'(%21(+
<
[#-"'-)1/$%"#'2-=71%"'0"#$"%'+-)"52+6'()",'4"01#'(.'U7$0"'()"5+"/8"+'1#'
2--.%$2#-"';1()'(%21(+'-.#+1$"%"$'2**%.*%12("'(.'()"1%'3"#$"%+
<
Gender-schema&theory
Y%2$1(1.#2/'+":72/'+-%1*(&'2'+":72/'+-%1*('42+"$'.#'+("%".(,*1-2/'+(2#$2%$+'3.%'
+":72/'4")281.7%'()2('$1-(2("+'()2('52/"+'(2C"'2#'2++"%(18"'2#$'2-(18"'%./"'1#'
)"("%.+":72/'1#("%2-(1.#';)1/"';.5"#'(2C"'2'%"-"*(18"'2#$'*2++18"'%./"
<
A7/(7%2/'":*"-(2(1.#'()2('5"#'2%"'1#1(12(.%'2#$';.5"#'2%"'02("C""*"%+'1+'
"54"$$"$';1()1#'()"'(%2$1(1.#2/'+":72/'+-%1*('()2('5"#'2%"'+":72//,'200%"++18"'
2#$';.5"#'2%"'+":72//,'*2++18"
<
>("%".(,*"+'328.7%'5"#X+'+":72/'*%"3"%"#-"+6'$"#,1#0';.5"#'()"'.**.%(7#1(,'
(.'018"'2#$'%"-"18"'()"1%'*%"3"%%"$'C1#$+'.3'+(157/2(1.#
<
<#$3#"(F/'#2(%$3()#*+%'(G#5%8-/+"
Q"#'2%"'5.%"'/1C"/,'(.')28"'"#020"$'1#')"("%.+":72/'1#("%-.7%+"'()2#';.5"#6'
()"'0"#$"%'$133"%"#-"'1+'+52//'2#$'$"-%"2+1#0
<
_133"%"#-"+'1#'()"'*"%-"#(20"+'.3'5"#'2#$';.5"#';).')28"'"#020"$'1#'.%2/'
+":'2%"'2/+.'+52//
<
W.()'5"#'2#$';.5"#X+'2((1(7$"+'(.;2%$'*%"52%1(2/'+":')28"'2/+.'4"-.5"'5.%"'
2--"*(1#0'2#$'0"#$"%'$133"%"#-"'1#'()"+"'2((1(7$"+'+52//"%
<
_133"%"#-"'4"(;""#'/13"(15"' +":72/'*2%(#"%+'4"(;""#'52/"'2#$'3"52/"'1+'=71("'
+52//
<
Q"#'2%"'5.%"'/1C"/,'(.'52+(7%42("'()2#';.5"#<
c2%0"+('0"#$"%'$133"%"#-"';2+'()"'7+"'.3'+":72//,'":*/1-1(' 52("%12/<
Q"#';"%"'5.%"'/1C"/,'()2#';.5"#'(.'2--"++'5202G1#"+6'81$".+'2#$'()"'1#("%#"('
3.%'+":72/'-.#("#(
<
B((1(7$"'2#$'W")281.7%'_133"%"#-"+
L.5"#';1()'52#,'+":72/'*2%(#"%+'2%"'5.%"')2%+)/,'U7$0"$'()2#'5"#';1()'
52#,'*2%(#"%+
<
L.5"#';"%"'5.%"'+"8"%"'()2#'5"#'1#'U7$01#0';.5"#X+'+":72/'4")281.7%<
Q"#')2$'0%"2("%'+":72/'3%""$.5'()2#';.5"#<
L.5"#'().70)('1(';2+'"2+1"%'3.%'5"#'(.')28"'52#,'*2%(#"%+'2#$'"#020"'1#'
-2+72/'+":6'5"#'3"/('()2(';.5"#'2#$'0%"2("%'3%""$.5'4"-27+"'()",';"%"'()"'
.#"+';).'$"-1$"$';)"()"%'+":';.7/$'.--7%
<
W.()'0"#$"%+';"%"'5.%"'/1C"/,'(.'$1+-.7%20"'2'3"52/"'3%1"#$'3%.5'$2(1#0'2'52#'
;).X$')2$'52#,'+":72/'*2%(#"%+'()2#'(.'$1+-.7%20"'2'52/"'3%1"#$'3%.5'$2(1#0'2'
)10)/,'":*"%1"#-"$' ;.52#
<
The&sexual&double&standard
!"#$"%'+("%".(,*"+')28"')"281/,'1#3/7"#-"$'()"'(,*"'.3'%"/2(1.#2/' 2#$'+":72/'
2$81-"'*%.81$"$'(.'-.7*/"+'
<
L2+'2++75"$'()2(';.5"#'"#("%"$'52%%120"'2+'1#":*"%1"#-"$' 81%01#+';).'
/2-C"$'2#,'C#.;/"$0"'.3'+":72/'*/"2+7%"
Z1%+('*2%('.3'()"'(;"#(1"()'-"#(7%,6'/1("%2(7%"'*%"+"#("$'()"')7+42#$'2+'()"'
;13"X+'(7(.%'2#$'()"'1#1(12(.%'.3'+":6'2#$'()"';13"'2+'()"'*2++18"'+(7$"#(
<
_7%1#0'()"'+":72/'%"8./7(1.#'.3'()"'PfOH+6'+":';2+'#.'/.#0"%'(1"$'(.'52%%120"'
2#$'52%%120"'52#72/+';"%"'%"#25"$'+":'52#72/+
<
!"#$"%'2#$'+":'B$81-"'c1("%2(7%"
gHh'.3';.5"#'-/215"$'(.'4"')10)/,'+":72/<
\5*.%(2#('3.%'+.-1"(,'(.'%"-.0#1G"'()2('52#,';.5"#'2%"')10)/,'1#("%"+("$'1#'+":'
2#$'1#'.4(21#1#0'+":72/'*/"2+7%"
<
?10)/,'>":72/'L.5"#
Q2+-7/1#1(,'2#$'3"51#1#1(,'-.#+(1(7("'+"*2%2("'*"%+.#2/1(,'$15"#+1.#+<
d+,-)./.01-2/'2#$%.0,#,&'2'+(2("'-)2%2-("%1G"$'4,'*.++"++1.#'.3'4.()'
+("%".(,*1-2/'52+-7/1#"'(%21(+'2#$'+("%".(,*1-2/'3"51#1#"'(%21(+
<
d".*/"';).'2%"'*+,-)./.01-2//,'2#$%.0,#.7+'52,'4"'-2*24/"'.3'+755.#1#0'7*'
2';1$"%'%2#0"'.3'52+-7/1#"'2#$'3"51#1#"'(%21(+'(.'5""('()"'$"52#$+'.3'82%1.7+'
+1(72(1.#+'2#$'(.'4"(("%'":*%"++'()"1%'$"+1%"+'2#$'(2/"#(+
<
d".*/"';).'.**.+"'()"'-.#+(%21#(+'.3'(%2$1(1.#2/'0"#$"%'%./"+'52,'*"%-"18"'
*+,-)./.01-2/'2#$%.0,#,'4"-27+"'1(+'$"31#"$'1#'("%5+'.3'52+-7/1#"'2#$'3"51#1#"'
3"#$"%'%./"+
<
>.5"'4"#"31(+'.3'*+,-)./.01-2/'2#$%.0,#.7+'*".*/"'("#$'(.')28"')10)"%'+"/3N
"+(""5'2#$'(.'4"'0"#"%2//,'4"(("%'2$U7+("$'*+,-)./.01-2//,'()2#'*".*/"';).'2%"'
3"51#1#"'.%'7#$133"%(12("$9
<
!2>45/'/B-4%'(:$3"/B>$>
Chapter(5
[-(.4"%'PD6'DHPV I&MI'dQ
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

!"#$"%&'()"'*+,-)./.01-2/'+(2("'.3'4"1#0'3"52/"'.%'52/"6'2+'1#3/7"#-"$'4,'
-7/(7%2/'-.#-"*(+'.3'0"#$"%'2**%.*%12("'4")281.7%9'!"#$"%'1+'$1+(1#-('3%.5'
2#2(.51-'+":6';)1-)'1+'42+"$'.#'()"'*),+1-2/'$133"%"#-"+'4"(;""#'3"52/"+'2#$'
52/"+
<
!"#$"%'(,*1#0&'()"'*%.-"++'4,';)1-)'-)1/$%"#'2-=71%"'4")281.7%+'$""5"$'
2**%.*%12("'3.%'()"1%'+":
<
>":72/'$133"%"#(12(1.#&'()"'*%.-"++'4,';)1-)'52/"+'2#$'3"52/"+'$"8"/.*'$1+(1#-('
%"*%.$7-(18"'2#2(.5,
<
?.('+"5"#'@'52/"
A./$'+"5"#'@'3"52/"
B%1+(.(/"'4"/1"8"$'2#2(.51-2/'$133"%"#-"';2+'$7"'(.')"2('.3'()"'+"5"#'2('(15"'
.3'+":72/'%"/2(1.#+
<
A)%.5.+.5"&'2'%.$/1C"'+(%7-(7%"'3.7#$'1#'()"'#7-/"7+'.3'"8"%,'/181#0'-"//9'
A2%%1"+'0"#"(1-'-.$"'1#'()"'3.%5'.3'0"#"+
<
DE'-)%.5.+.5"+'3%.5'()"'52/"'-.541#"+';1()'DE'-)%.5.+.5"+'3%.5'()"'
3"52/"'*2%"#(
<
F,0.("&'2'3"%(1/1G"$'.875'<
F,0.("'2('()"'4"01##1#0'1+'.#/,'H9HI-5'/.#0<
JJ'@'3"52/"
JK'@'52/"
DE%$'*21%'.3'-)%.5.+.5"+'1+'()"'+":'-)%.5.+.5"<
B3("%'3"%(1/1G2(1.#6'()"'G,0.("'$181$"+'%"*"2("$/,<
B('24.7('E';""C+6'2'*%151(18"')"2%('4"01#+'(.'$%18"'4/..$'()%.70)'()"'
"54%,.#1-'4/..$+(%"25
<
L""C'M'N;""C'O6'"54%,.'1+'H9M'NP-5'/.#06')2+'2'*21%'.3'+":72//,'
7#$133"%"#(12("$'0.#2$+6'(;.'+"(+'.3'*%151(18"'$7-('+(%7-(7%"+'-2//"$'()"'
Q7//"%12#'R3"52/"S'$7-(+'2#$'()"'L./3312#'R52/"S'$7-(+6'2#$'*%151(18"'":("%#2/'
0"#1(2/+';).+"'+":'-2##.('4"'81+72//,'$1+(1#071+)"$
<
T54%,.&'()"'+(20"'.3'*%"#2(2/'$"8"/.*5"#('()2('4"01#+';1()'15*/2#(2(1.#'.3'2'
3"%(1/1G"$'.875'1#'()"'7("%7+'2#$'-.#-/7$"+';1()'$"8"/.*5"#('.3'()"'52U.%'
.%02#'+,+("5+'2('24.7('(;.'5.#()+'23("%'-.#-"*(1.#
<
B('V';""C+6'0"#"(1-'-.$"'4"01#+'(.'2++"%('1(+"/3<
W,'V';""C'.3'*%"#2(2/'$"8"/.*5"#(6'+(%2#$+'.3'(1++7"'4"01#'(.'.%02#1G"'1#(.'
+"51#13"%.7+'(747/"+'
<
B4.7('PH';""C+6'3.%"%7##"%+'.3'3.//1-/"+'()2(';1//'4"2%'.82'2%"'#.('3.7#$'7#(1/'
()"'3"(2/'+(20"'.3'$"8"/.*5"#(
<
L""C'PPNPD'.82%1"+'4"01#'(.'3.%5<
!"#$%&%'()#*+%'(,-..#"#$&-%&-/$
B#$%.0"#+&'52/"'+":').%5.#"+<
L1().7('2#$%.0"#+6';"X$'2//'$"8"/.*'3"52/"'":("%#2/' %"*%.$7-(18"'.%02#+<
Y"+(.+("%.#"&'()"'52/"'+":').%5.#"'()2('3.+("%+'$"8"/.*5"#('.3'52/"'+":'
-)2%2-("%1+(1-+'2#$'1+'-.##"-("$';1()'()"'+":'$%18"
<
Z"52/"'+":').%5.#"+'2%"'-%7-12/'1#'*74"%(,'47('2%"'#.('1#8./8"$'1#'3"(2/'+":72/'
$133"%"#(12(1.#
<
)#*(0/"1/$#2(%$3()#*+%'(,-..#"#$&-%&-/$
Y)"'("+("+'2#$'.82%1"+'$"8"/.*')10)'1#'()"'24$.51#2/'-281(,'<
PH';""C+6'()",'$"+-"#$'2#$'2%"'"8"#';1()'()"'7**"%'"$0"'.3'()"'*"/81+<
[82%1"+'%"521#'3.%'%"+('.3'*%"#2(2/'*"%1.$6'/2("%'%.(2("+'2#$'37%()"%'$"+-"#$+'(.'
()"1%'2$7/('*.+1(1.#+
<
I'5.#()+6'("+("+'$"+-"#$'1#(.'+-%.(2/'+2-'()%.70)'1#071#2/'-2#2/6';)1-)'-/.+"+<
\#071#2/'-2#2/&'2'3"(2/'-2#2/'()2('-.##"-(+'()"'+-%.(75'2#$'()"'("+("+'2//.;1#0'
()"'/2(("%'(.'$"+-"#$
<
]+72//,'(%"2("$'()%.70)'+7%0"%,'.%').%5.#2/'()"%2*,
?10)"%'%1+C'3.%'-2#-"%
>*"%5'*%.$7-(1.#'1+'15*21%"$
A%,*(.%-)1$1+5&'2'-.#$1(1.#'1#';)1-)'2('/"2+('.#"'.3'()"'("+("+'321/+'(.'$"+-"#$<
,#24#$&(/.(&5#(6#2&#2(%$3(78%"-#2
Z21/'(.'$"8"/.*'2**%.*%12("'+"-.#$2%,'+":'-)2%2-("%1+(1-+'
T#/2%0"$'4%"2+(+6'*..%'57+-7/2%'$"8"/.*5"#(
Z21/'(.'*%.$7-"'+*"%56'1#3"%(1/"
Q1/$'5"#(2/'%"(2%$2(1.#
^/1#"3"/("%X+'+,#$%.5"&'52/"')2+'2#'":(%2'J'+":'-)%.5.+.5"'RJJK'*2(("%#S<
Q2,'#.('#2(7%2//,'7#$"%0.'*74"%(,
Y7%#"%X+'+,#$%.5"&'2'3"52/"')2+'U7+('.#"'J'-)%.5.+.5"'RJ'*2(("%#S<
Y)"'4%21#'7#$"%0."+'*%"#2(2/'+":72/'$133"%"#(12(1.#
<
Y"+(.+("%.#"'-27+"+'),*.()2/257+'(.'4"-.5"'1#+"#+1(18"'(.'"+(%.0"#
<
>"#+1(181(,'(.'"+(%.0"#'1+'15*.%(2#('1#'%"07/2(1.#'.3'()"'5"#+(%72/'-,-/"'23("%'
*74"%(,
<
)#*(95"/1/2/1#(:;$/"1%'-&-#2
A1+0"#$"%&'+":'()",';"%"'2++10#"$'2('41%()'52(-)"+'()"1%'0"#$"%'1$"#(1(,
<
<#$3#"(=3#$&-&>
_."+'#.('2--7%2("/,'%"3/"-('()"'$18"%+"'%2#0"'.3'0"#$"%'1$"#(1(1"+'()2('
2-(72//,'":1+(
!"#$"%'41#2%,&'+.-12/'+,+("5'()2('$"31#"+'3"#$"%'2+'"1()"%'+(%1-(/,'52/"'.%'
3"52/"
<
?.%5.#2/'32-(.%+'$7%1#0'*%"#2(2/'$"8"/.*5"#('*%.$7-"'82%1.7+'-.#0"#1(2/'
.7(-.5"+
<
?"%52*)%.$1("+&'1#$181$72/+';).'*.++"++'4.()'.82%12#'2#$'("+(1-7/2%'(1++7"
<
?"%52*)%.$1("+'7+72//,'2++75"'()"'1$"#(1(1"+'2#$'%./"+'.3'()"'0"#$"%+'()",'
;"%"'2++10#"$'(.'2('41%()
<
Y%7"')"%52*)%.$1(1+5'1+'=71("'%2%"
<
\#("%+":'*".*/"')28"'("+("+'.%'.82%1"+'47('#.('4.()
<
A27+"$'4,')10)'/"8"/+'.3'2#$%.0"#+
AB?'5.%"'`4.,/1C"`'1#'(.,'-).1-"+'2#$'200%"++18"#"++
A.#0"#1(2/'2$%"#2/'),*"%*/2+12'RAB?S&'5.+('-.55.#'3"52/"'1#("%+":'-.#$1(1.#6'
1#';)1-)'2'0"#"(1-'3"52/"')2+'1#("%#2/'3"52/"'+":72/'+(%7-(7%"+'2#$'
52+-7/1#1G"$'":("%#2/' 0"#1(2/+
<
B#$%.0"#'1#+"#+1(181(,'+,#$%.5"&'/.;"%'()2#'#.%52/'*%"#2(2/'+"#+1(181(,'(.'
2#$%.0"#+6'0"#1(2/+'$.'#.('4"-.5"'#.%52//,'52+-7/1#1G"$
<
_.51#1-2#'%"474/1-'+,#$%.5"&'0"#"(1-'"#G,5"'$1+.%$"%'()2('*%"8"#(+'
("+(.+("%.#"'3%.5'52+-7/1#1G1#0'()"'":("%#2/' 0"#1(2/12
<
?%&+"#(%$3(?+"&+"#
!"#$"%'$,+*).%12&'2'+"#+"'.3'1#-.#0%71(,'4"(;""#'2++10#"$'+":'2#$'0"#$"%'
1$"#(1(,'()2('-27+"+'+10#131-2#('$1+(%"++
<
Y)"%"'57+('4"'2'52%C"$'$133"%"#-"'4"(;""#'2'*"%+.#X+'":*%"++1.#'2#$'
":*"%1"#-"' .3'0"#$"%'2#$'()"'0"#$"%'.()"%+';.7/$'2++10#')15'.%')"%'1#'.%$"%'
3.%'2'*"%+.#'(.'4"'$120#.+"$';1()'0"#$"%'$,+*).%12
<
!"#$"%'#.#-.#3.%51(,'1+'#.('1#'1(+"/3'2'5"#(2/'$1+.%$"%'2#$'()2('()"'$120#.+1+'.3'
0"#$"%'$,+*).%12'1+'$"*"#$"#('.#'()"'*"%+.#'":*%"++1#0'+10#131-2#('$1+(%"++'
24.7('()"1%'0"#$"%'+(2(7+
<
<#$3#"(,>2@5/"-%
\('1+'#.('5.%"'-.55.#'3.%'1#("%8"#(1.#+'2#$'+"%81-"+'3.%'0"#$"%'#.#N
-.#3.%51#0'-)1/$%"#'2#$'()"1%'3251/1"+'(.'(2C"'2'+7**.%(18"'2**%.2-)'()2('
2331%5+'2'-)1/$X+'0"#$"%'1$"#(1(,'%2()"%'()2#'2(("5*(1#0'(.'-)2#0"'1(
<
<#$3#"(?/$A9/$./"1-$B(95-'3"#$
Y%2#+0"#$"%a(%2#+&'2'*"%+.#';).+"'0"#$"%'1$"#(1(,'1+'$133"%"#('3%.5'()"1%'
2++10#"$'+":'2('41%()
<
Y%2#+1(1.#1#0&'()"'2-(181(1"+'()2('+.5"'(%2#+'*".*/"'52,'7+"'(.'4"01#'/181#0'2+'
()"'0"#$"%';1()';)1-)'()",'1$"#(13,'%2()"%'()2#'()"'0"#$"%'()",';"%"'2++10#"$'
2('41%()
<
A2#'7#$"%0.').%5.#"'(%"2(5"#(+'2#$'+7%0"%,'(.'-%"2("'()"'2**"2%2#-"'.3'()"'
":("%#2/'0"#1(2/+'(,*1-2/'.3'()"'0"#$"%'()",'1$"#(13,'()"5+"/8"+';1()
<
B3("%'+7%0"%,6'*".*/"'-2#'*2%(1-1*2("'1#'+":72/'2-(181(,'2#$'"8"#'2((21#'.%02+5<
Y)",'":*"%1"#-"' 1#-.#0%71(,'4"(;""#'()"1%'0"#1(2/'2#2(.5,'2#$'()"1%'0"#$"%'
1$"#(1(,6'2/().70)'()",')28"'()"'2#2(.51-'0"#1(2/12' .3'.#"'+":6'()",'3""/'()2('
()",X%"'5"54"%'.3'2#.()"%
<
Q"#';).'2%"'":(%"5"/,'3"51#1#"&'02,'5"#';).'2%"#X('37//,'+2(1+31"$'4,'
+":72/'2-(181(,';1()'.()"%'5"#
Q"#';).'2%"'+":72//,'2%.7+"$'4,'()"'1$"2'.3'4"-.51#0';.5"#&'
27(.0,#"*)1/1-'R$"+-%1*(18"'.3'(%2#+0"#$"%'5"#';).'2%"'+":72//,'
+(157/2("$'4,'32#(2+1"+'()2('()"1%'.;#'4.$1"+'2%"'3"52/"S'.%'+":72//,'
+(157/2("$'4,'32#(2+1"+'()2('()"1%'.;#'4.$1"+'2%"'3"52/"
>.5"'5"#';).'+""C'(.'4"-.5"';.5"#'("#$'(.'32//'1#(.'.()"%'-2("0.%1"+&'<
b"+"2%-)'+700"+(+'()2('(%2#+0"#$"%'*".*/"'7+72//,'+).;'-%.++N0"#$"%'
*%"3"%"#-"+'1#'*/2,'2#$'$%"++'$7%1#0'"2%/,'-)1/$)..$
<
6"%$2B#$3#"(CD6"%$2DE
c13"(15"').%5.#"'(%"2(5"#(+<
A27+"+'32((,'$"*.+1(+'(.'$"8"/.*'1#'()"'4%"2+(+'2#$')1*+6'+.3("#'()"'+C1#'
2#$'1#)141(+'0%.;()'.3'()"'4"2%$
Q2/"'(.'3"52/"'(%2#+'*"%+.#'%"-"18"+'"+(%.0"#<
d%.5.("+'52/"'+"-.#$2%,'+":'-)2%2-("%1+(1-+
e.1-"'$""*"#+6')21%'4"-.5"+'$1+(%147("$'2--.%$1#0'(.'()"'52/"'*2(("%#6'
57+-/"+'"#/2%0"'2#$'()"'32((,'$"*.+1(+'1#'()"'4%"2+(+'2#$')1*+'2%"'/.+(
A/1(.%1+'52,'0%.;'5.%"'*%.51#"#(
Z"52/"'(.'52/"'(%2#+'*"%+.#'%"-"18"+'2#$%.0"#+<
Q2/"'(.'3"52/"'-2#'0.'()%.70)'*).#.+7%0"%,'(.'%21+"'()"'*1(-)'.3'()"'8.1-"<
!"#$"%'%"2++10#5"#('1+'/2%0"/,'-.+5"(1-<
d)2//.*/2+(,&'+7%01-2/'%"-%"2(1#0'.3'2#'2%(131-12/'*"#1+<
Gender&Reassignment
Q.+('%"*.%(+'.3'(%2#+'*".*/"+X'*.+(.*"%2(18"'2$U7+(5"#(+'2%"'*.+1(18"<
Y)"%"'2%"'*%.0%25+'()2(')"/*'(%2#+'*".*/"'-.5"'(.'("%5+';1()'()"5+"/8"+'2#$'
2$U7+('(.'/181#0'1#'2'+.-1"(,'1#';)1-)'()",'.3("#'3""'7#;"/-.5"
<
Surgical&Outcomes
>("%".(,*"&'2'31:"$6'-.#8"#(1.#2/'1$"2'24.7('2'0%.7*'.3'*".*/"<
!"#$"%'%./"+&'-.5*/":'-/7+("%+'.3';2,'52/"+'2#$'3"52/"+'2%"'":*"-("$' (.'
4")28"
<
<#$3#"(F/'#2(%$3()&#"#/&>@#2
>":1+5&'()"'*%"U7$0"5"#('()2('2'*"%+.#';1//'*.++"++'-"%(21#'(%21(+'4"-27+"'.3'
0"#$"%
<
)#*-21
Q2/"+')28"'4""#'3.7#$'(.'4")28"'5.%"'200%"++18"/,'()2#'3"52/"+<
Z"52/"+'2%"'/1C"/,'(.'2-('200%"++18"/,'7#$"%'-"%(21#'-.#$1(1.#+<
Y)"'%2("'.3'200%"++1.#'25.#0'01%/+'+""5+'(.')28"'1#-%"2+"$'1#'%"-"#(',"2%+<
!"#$"%'b./"+'2#$'B00%"++1.#
!"#$"%'(,*1#0<
Y)"'*%.-"++'4,';)1-)'2'-)1/$'2-=71%"+'4")281.7%+'$""5"$'2**%.*%12("'3.%')1+'.%'
)"%'0"#$"%
<
<#$3#"(6>@-$B
W1./.01-2/'81";+'.#'0"#$"%'(,*1#0'(.'3.-7+'.#'()"'%./"+'.3'0"#"(1-+'2#$'*%"#2(2/'
1#3/7"#-"+'1#'*%"$1+*.+1#0'5"#'2#$';.5"#'(.'0"#$"%N/1#C"$'4")281.7%'*2(("%#+
<
W1./.01-2/'d"%+*"-(18"+
L"'*.++"++'()"'0"#"(1-'%"5#2#(+'.3'(%21(+'()2(')"/*"$'.7%'2#-"+(.%+'+7%818"'2#$'
%"*%.$7-"
<
B--.%$1#0'(.'"8./7(1.#2%,'*"%+*"-(18"6'5"#X+'(%2$1(1.#2/'%./"+'2+')7#("%+'2#$'
;2%%1.%+'2#$';.5"#X+'%./"+'2+'-2%"018"%+'2#$'02()"%"%+'.3'3%71(+'2#$'8"0"(24/"+'
<
Y)"'"8./7(1.#2%,'*"%+*"-(18"'1+'+(""*"$'1#'-.#(%.8"%+,<
\5*/1"+'()2('+("%".(,*1-2/'0"#$"%'%./"+'%"3/"-('()"'#2(7%2/'.%$"%'.3'()1#0+<
>.5"'3"51#1+('2#$'=7""%'()".%1+(+'2%07"'()2('()"'"8./7(1.#2%,'":*/2#2(1.#'3.%'
0"#$"%'$133"%"#-"+'1#'4")281.7%'+"%8"+'2+'2#'":-7+"'3.%'%2(1.#2/1G1#0'0"#$"%'
1#"=72/1(,
<
The&Evolutionary&Perspective
b10)('4%21#6'+*"-12/1G"$'(.'*"%3.%5'81+72/'2#$'+*2(12/'(2+C+<
c"3('4%21#6'5.%"'-%1(1-2/' 3.%'8"%42/'37#-(1.#+<
>":72/'$133"%"#(12(1.#'.3'()"'4%21#'52,'":*/21#'5"#X+'+7*"%1.%1(,'2('+*2(12/'
%"/2(1.#+'(2+C+
<
Y"+(.+("%.#"'1#'()"'4%21#+'.3'52/"'3"(7+"+'+*7%+'0%"2("%'0%.;()'.3'()"'%10)('
)"51+*)"%"'2#$'+/.;+'()"'%2("'.3'0%.;()'.3'()"'/"3(')"51+*)"%"
<
d%"3"%"#-"+'3.%'0"#$"%N(,*"$'(.,+'510)('4"'2('/"2+('1#'*2%('1#4.%#'2#$'+).7/$'
()"%"3.%"'"5"%0"'1#'-)1/$%"#'4"3.%"'()",X%"'+"/3'2;2%"'.3'()"1%'0"#$"%'1$"#(1(1"+
<
Prenatal&Brain&Organization
A)1/$%"#'4"-.5"'2;2%"'.3'0"#$"%'%./"'+("%".(,*"+'4,'()"'("#$"%'20"'.3'(;.'(.'
()%""
<
d+,-)./.01-2/'d"%+*"-(18"+
["$1*7+'-.5*/":&'1#'*+,-).2#2/,(1-'()".%,6'2'-.#3/1-('.3'()"'*)2//1-'+(20"'1#'
;)1-)'()"'4.,';1+)"+'(.'*.++"++')1+'5.()"%'+":72//,'2#$'*"%-"18"+')1+'32()"%'2+'
2'%182/'3.%')"%'/.8"
<
Y)"'-.5*/":'1+'%"+./8"$'4,'()"'-)1/$X+'3.%+2C1#0'1#-"+(7.7+';1+)"+'3.%'()"'
*2%"#('.3'()"'.()"%'0"#$"%'2#$'1$"#(13,1#0';1()'()"'*2%"#('.3'()"'+25"'0"#$"%
<
Y)%.70)'1$"#(131-2(1.#';1()'()"'+25"'0"#$"%'*2%"#(6'()"'-)1/$'-.5"+'(.'$"8"/.*'
4")281.7%+'()2('2%"'(,*1-2//,'2++.-12("$';1()'()2('0"#$"%
<
Psychoanalytic&theory
T:*/21#'()"'$"8"/.*5"#('.3'0"#$"%N(,*"$'4")281.7%'1#'("%5+'.3'*%.-"++"+'+7-)'
2+'.4+"%82(1.#2/'/"2%#1#06'1$"#(131-2(1.#'2#$'+.-12/1G2(1.#
<
>.-12/1G2(1.#&'()"'*%.-"++'4,';)1-)'2#'1#$181$72/'1+'071$"$'1#(.'+.-12//,'
2--"*(24/"'4")281.7%'*2(("%#+'()%.70)'1#3.%52(1.#6'%";2%$+'2#$'*7#1+)5"#(
<
Q.%"'5.()"%+';.%C1#0'.7(+1$"'()"').5"
d2%"#(+'"#-.7%20"'$270)("%+'(.'3.-7+'.#'-2%"%+'2#$'"#020"'1#'+(%"#7.7+'
*),+1-2/'2-(181(1"+
W.,+')28"'32()"%+';).'(2C"'/2%0"%'%./"+'1#'-)1/$-2%"' 2#$').7+")./$'
%"+*.#+141/1(1"+'
d2%"#(2/'%./"+'1#'0"#$"%'(,*1#0'2%"'-)2#01#0<
Social&Cognitive&Theory
!"#$"%'(,*1#0'1+'#.('()"'*%.$7-('.3'"#81%.#5"#(2/'1#3/7"#-"+'()2('5"-)2#1-2//,'
+(25*'1#'0"#$"%N2**%.*%12("'4")281.7%6'%2()"%'-)1/$%"#'()"5+"/8"+'*/2,'2#'
2-(18"'%./"
<
>-)"52&'2'-.#-"*('.%'2';2,'.3'1#("%*%"(1#0'":*"%1"#-"'.%'*%.-"++1#0'
1#3.%52(1.#
<
!"#$"%'+(241/1(,&'()"'-.#-"*('()2('*".*/"'%"(21#'()"1%'0"#$"%+'3.%'2'/13"(15"<
!"#$"%'-.#+(2#-,&'()"'-.#-"*('()2('*".*/"X+'0"#$"%+'$.'#.('-)2#0"6'"8"#'13'
()",'/2()"%'()"1%'$%"++'.%'4")281.7%
<
Cognitive-Developmental&Theory
!"#$"%'+-)"52&'2'-/7+("%'.3'5"#(2/'%"*%"+"#(2(1.#+'24.7('52/"'2#$'3"52/"''
*),+1-2/'=72/1(1"+6'4")281.7%+'2#$'*"%+.#2/1(,'(%21(+
<
[#-"'-)1/$%"#'2-=71%"'0"#$"%'+-)"52+6'()",'4"01#'(.'U7$0"'()"5+"/8"+'1#'
2--.%$2#-"';1()'(%21(+'-.#+1$"%"$'2**%.*%12("'(.'()"1%'3"#$"%+
<
Gender-schema&theory
Y%2$1(1.#2/'+":72/'+-%1*(&'2'+":72/'+-%1*('42+"$'.#'+("%".(,*1-2/'+(2#$2%$+'3.%'
+":72/'4")281.7%'()2('$1-(2("+'()2('52/"+'(2C"'2#'2++"%(18"'2#$'2-(18"'%./"'1#'
)"("%.+":72/'1#("%2-(1.#';)1/"';.5"#'(2C"'2'%"-"*(18"'2#$'*2++18"'%./"
<
A7/(7%2/'":*"-(2(1.#'()2('5"#'2%"'1#1(12(.%'2#$';.5"#'2%"'02("C""*"%+'1+'
"54"$$"$';1()1#'()"'(%2$1(1.#2/'+":72/'+-%1*('()2('5"#'2%"'+":72//,'200%"++18"'
2#$';.5"#'2%"'+":72//,'*2++18"
<
>("%".(,*"+'328.7%'5"#X+'+":72/'*%"3"%"#-"+6'$"#,1#0';.5"#'()"'.**.%(7#1(,'
(.'018"'2#$'%"-"18"'()"1%'*%"3"%%"$'C1#$+'.3'+(157/2(1.#
<
<#$3#"(F/'#2(%$3()#*+%'(G#5%8-/+"
Q"#'2%"'5.%"'/1C"/,'(.')28"'"#020"$'1#')"("%.+":72/'1#("%-.7%+"'()2#';.5"#6'
()"'0"#$"%'$133"%"#-"'1+'+52//'2#$'$"-%"2+1#0
<
_133"%"#-"+'1#'()"'*"%-"#(20"+'.3'5"#'2#$';.5"#';).')28"'"#020"$'1#'.%2/'
+":'2%"'2/+.'+52//
<
W.()'5"#'2#$';.5"#X+'2((1(7$"+'(.;2%$'*%"52%1(2/'+":')28"'2/+.'4"-.5"'5.%"'
2--"*(1#0'2#$'0"#$"%'$133"%"#-"'1#'()"+"'2((1(7$"+'+52//"%
<
_133"%"#-"'4"(;""#'/13"(15"' +":72/'*2%(#"%+'4"(;""#'52/"'2#$'3"52/"'1+'=71("'
+52//
<
Q"#'2%"'5.%"'/1C"/,'(.'52+(7%42("'()2#';.5"#<
c2%0"+('0"#$"%'$133"%"#-"';2+'()"'7+"'.3'+":72//,'":*/1-1(' 52("%12/<
Q"#';"%"'5.%"'/1C"/,'()2#';.5"#'(.'2--"++'5202G1#"+6'81$".+'2#$'()"'1#("%#"('
3.%'+":72/'-.#("#(
<
B((1(7$"'2#$'W")281.7%'_133"%"#-"+
L.5"#';1()'52#,'+":72/'*2%(#"%+'2%"'5.%"')2%+)/,'U7$0"$'()2#'5"#';1()'
52#,'*2%(#"%+
<
L.5"#';"%"'5.%"'+"8"%"'()2#'5"#'1#'U7$01#0';.5"#X+'+":72/'4")281.7%<
Q"#')2$'0%"2("%'+":72/'3%""$.5'()2#';.5"#<
L.5"#'().70)('1(';2+'"2+1"%'3.%'5"#'(.')28"'52#,'*2%(#"%+'2#$'"#020"'1#'
-2+72/'+":6'5"#'3"/('()2(';.5"#'2#$'0%"2("%'3%""$.5'4"-27+"'()",';"%"'()"'
.#"+';).'$"-1$"$';)"()"%'+":';.7/$'.--7%
<
W.()'0"#$"%+';"%"'5.%"'/1C"/,'(.'$1+-.7%20"'2'3"52/"'3%1"#$'3%.5'$2(1#0'2'52#'
;).X$')2$'52#,'+":72/'*2%(#"%+'()2#'(.'$1+-.7%20"'2'52/"'3%1"#$'3%.5'$2(1#0'2'
)10)/,'":*"%1"#-"$' ;.52#
<
The&sexual&double&standard
!"#$"%'+("%".(,*"+')28"')"281/,'1#3/7"#-"$'()"'(,*"'.3'%"/2(1.#2/' 2#$'+":72/'
2$81-"'*%.81$"$'(.'-.7*/"+'
<
L2+'2++75"$'()2(';.5"#'"#("%"$'52%%120"'2+'1#":*"%1"#-"$' 81%01#+';).'
/2-C"$'2#,'C#.;/"$0"'.3'+":72/'*/"2+7%"
Z1%+('*2%('.3'()"'(;"#(1"()'-"#(7%,6'/1("%2(7%"'*%"+"#("$'()"')7+42#$'2+'()"'
;13"X+'(7(.%'2#$'()"'1#1(12(.%'.3'+":6'2#$'()"';13"'2+'()"'*2++18"'+(7$"#(
<
_7%1#0'()"'+":72/'%"8./7(1.#'.3'()"'PfOH+6'+":';2+'#.'/.#0"%'(1"$'(.'52%%120"'
2#$'52%%120"'52#72/+';"%"'%"#25"$'+":'52#72/+
<
!"#$"%'2#$'+":'B$81-"'c1("%2(7%"
gHh'.3';.5"#'-/215"$'(.'4"')10)/,'+":72/<
\5*.%(2#('3.%'+.-1"(,'(.'%"-.0#1G"'()2('52#,';.5"#'2%"')10)/,'1#("%"+("$'1#'+":'
2#$'1#'.4(21#1#0'+":72/'*/"2+7%"
<
?10)/,'>":72/'L.5"#
Q2+-7/1#1(,'2#$'3"51#1#1(,'-.#+(1(7("'+"*2%2("'*"%+.#2/1(,'$15"#+1.#+<
d+,-)./.01-2/'2#$%.0,#,&'2'+(2("'-)2%2-("%1G"$'4,'*.++"++1.#'.3'4.()'
+("%".(,*1-2/'52+-7/1#"'(%21(+'2#$'+("%".(,*1-2/'3"51#1#"'(%21(+
<
d".*/"';).'2%"'*+,-)./.01-2//,'2#$%.0,#.7+'52,'4"'-2*24/"'.3'+755.#1#0'7*'
2';1$"%'%2#0"'.3'52+-7/1#"'2#$'3"51#1#"'(%21(+'(.'5""('()"'$"52#$+'.3'82%1.7+'
+1(72(1.#+'2#$'(.'4"(("%'":*%"++'()"1%'$"+1%"+'2#$'(2/"#(+
<
d".*/"';).'.**.+"'()"'-.#+(%21#(+'.3'(%2$1(1.#2/'0"#$"%'%./"+'52,'*"%-"18"'
*+,-)./.01-2/'2#$%.0,#,'4"-27+"'1(+'$"31#"$'1#'("%5+'.3'52+-7/1#"'2#$'3"51#1#"'
3"#$"%'%./"+
<
>.5"'4"#"31(+'.3'*+,-)./.01-2/'2#$%.0,#.7+'*".*/"'("#$'(.')28"')10)"%'+"/3N
"+(""5'2#$'(.'4"'0"#"%2//,'4"(("%'2$U7+("$'*+,-)./.01-2//,'()2#'*".*/"';).'2%"'
3"51#1#"'.%'7#$133"%(12("$9
<
!2>45/'/B-4%'(:$3"/B>$>
Chapter(5
[-(.4"%'PD6'DHPV I&MI'dQ
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version