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Chapter 3

FRHD 2100 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Testicular Cancer, Ejaculatory Duct, Vaginal Bleeding


Department
Family Relations and Human Development
Course Code
FRHD 2100
Professor
Robin Milhausen
Chapter
3

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Chapter 3 – Female & Male Anatomy and Physiology
p. 57 A World of Diversity – Designer Vaginas: The Latest in Sex and Plastic Surgery
- Labial reduction surgery, which promises a photogenic vagina and more confidence in the boudoir, is the hottest trend in
cosmetic surgery.
- Labial reduction, in which the edges of the labia minora- the inner folds of the labia are surgically cut down and then stitched
back together.
- Dr. Robert Stubbs, a well-known certified plastic surgeon, does combined breast augmentation and labial reductions, or “ tops
and bottoms,” on one or two women a week at his Toronto clinic.
- The surgeries include liposuction of the mons pubis fleshy protuberance situated over the pubic, labia plastic, vaginal tightening
and hymen repair procedures for women who want to be born-again virgins.
- Dr. Matlock says he’s confident “ vaginal rejuvenation surgeries will enhance a woman’s sexual gratification.”
External Sex Organs
-The vulva consists of the mons veneris, the labia majory and minora, the clitoris, and the vaginal opening.
-Vulva the external sexual structures of the female.
-Mons Veneris consists of fatty tissue that covers the joint of the pubic bones in front of the body, below the abdomen and
above the clitoris.
-The mons cushions a woman’s body during sexual intercourse, protecting her and her partner from the pressure against the pubic
bone that stems from thrusting motions.
-The labia majora are large folds of skin that run downward from the mons along the sides of the vulva. The labia majora of
some women are thick and bulging. In other women, they are thinner, flatter, and less noticeable. When close together they hide
the labia minora and the urethral and vaginal openings.
-The labia minora are two hairless, light-coloured membranes located between the major lips. They surround the urethral and
vaginal openings. The outer surfaces of the labia minora merge with the major lips. At the top they join at the prepuce of the
clitoris.
-The Clitoris is the only sex organ whose only known function is the experiencing of the pleasure. The clitoris receives its
name from manner in which it sloped upward in the shaft and forms a mound of spongy tissue at the glans. The body of the
clitoris, termed the clitoral shaft is about 2.5 cm long and o.5 cm wide. The clitoral shaft consists of erectile tissue that contains
two spongy masses called corpora cavernosa that fill with blood and become erect in response to sexual stimulation.
-Corpora cavernosa masses of spongy tissue in the clitoral shaft that become engorged with blood and stiffen in response to
sexual stimulation.
-The prepuce or hood, covers the clitoral shaft. It is a sheath of skin formed by the upper part of the labia minora.
-The clitoris is the female sex organ that is most sensitive to sexual sensation. The size of the clitoris varies from woman to
woman, just as the size of the penis varies among men. There is no known connection between the size of the clitoris and
sensitivity to sexual stimulation.
-Both the clitoris and the penis develop from the same embryonic tissue, which makes them similar in structure, or
homologous. They are not, however, fully similar in function, or analogous. Both organs receive and transmit sexual sensations,
but the penis is directly involved in reproduction and excretion by serving as a conduit for sperm and urine, respectively.
-The word vestibule refers to the area within the labia minora that contains the openings to the vagina and the urethra. The
vestibule is richly supplied with nerve endings and is very sensitive to tactile or other sexual stimulation.
-Urethral opening the opening through which urine passes from the female’s body.
p. 61 A World of Diversity Female Genital Mutilation
- Cultures in some parts of Africa and the Middle East ritually mutilate or remove the clitoris, not just the clitoral hood.
-Removal of the clitoris, or clitoridectomy, is a rite of initiation into womanhood in many of these predominantly Islamic
cultures.
-It is often performed as puberty ritual in late childhood or early adolescence. The clitoris gives rise to feelings of sexual pleasure
in women. Its removal or mutilation represents an attempt to ensure the girl’s chastity, because it is assumed that uncircumcised
girls are consumed with sexual desire.
-Clitoridectomies are performed under unsanitary conditions without benefit of anesthesia. Medical complications are common,
including infections, bleeding, tissue scarring, painful menstruation, and obstructed labour.
-Cystitis is a bladder inflammation that may stem from any of these sources. Its primary symptoms are burning and frequent
urination.
- A few precautions may help women prevent serious inflammation of the bladder:
-drinking two litres of water a day to flush the bladder
-drinking orange or cranberry juice to maintain an acidic environment that discourages growth of infectious organisms. Juices
with added sugar should be avoided.
-Reducing the intake of alcohol and caffeine, which may irritate the bladder.

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-washing hands prior to masturbation or self-examination.
-washing one’s partner’s and one’s own genitals before and after intercourse.
-preventing objects that have touched the anus from subsequently coming into contact with the vulva.
-covering sex toys with condoms to prevent possible infection
-urinating soon after intercourse to help wash away bacteria.
-The Vaginal opening is called introitus. The introitus lies below, and is larger than, the urethral opening. Its shape resembles
that of the hymen. The hymen is a fold of tissue across the vaginal opening that is usually present at birth and may remain at
least partly intact until a woman engages in coitus.
-Some women are born with incomplete hymens and others women’s hymens are torn accidentally such as during horseback
riding, strenuous exercises, or gymnastics- or even when bicycle riding. A punctual hymen is therefore poor evidence of coital
experience. A flexible hymen may also withstand many coital experiences, so its presence does not guarantee virginity.
-The perineum consists of the skin and underlying tissue between the vaginal openings and the anus. The perineum is also
present in males. The perineum is rich in nerve endings. Stimulation of the area may heighten sexual arousal.
-The vestibular bulbs and Bartholin’s glands are active during sexual arousal and are found on both sides. Muscular
rings(sphincters) that constrict bodily openings, such as the vaginal and anal openings, are also found on both sides.
-The clitoral crura are wing-shaped, leglike structures that attach the clitoris to the pubic bone beneath.
-The vestibular bulbs are attached to the clitoris at the top and extend downward along the sides of the vaginal openings.
-Bartholin’s glands lie just inside the minor lips on each side of the vaginal openings. They secrete a couple of drops of
lubrication just before orgasm. This lubrication is not essential for coitus.
Internal Sex Organs
- The internal sex organs of the female include the innermost parts of the vagina, the cervix, the uterus, and two ovaries, each
connected to the uterus by a fallopian tube. These structure comprise the female reproductive system.
-The Vagina extends back and upward from the vaginal opening. It is usually 7.5-12.5 cm long at rest. Menstrual flow and
babies pass from the uterus to the outer world through the vagina. During coitus, the penis is contained within the vagina.
-The vaginal walls have 3 layers : the inner lining, or vaginal mucosa, is made visible by opening the labia minora. It is a
mucous membrane similar to the skin that lines the inside of the mouth. It feels fleshy, soft, and corrugated. It may vary from
very dry to very wet, in which case fingers slide against it readily. The middle layer of the vaginal wall is muscular. The outer or
deeper layer is fibrous covering that connects the vagina to other pelvic structures.
-The vaginal walls secrete substances that help maintain the vagina’s normal acidity. Women who frequently douche or use
femine deodorant sprays may thus remove or mask substances that may arouse sex partners.
-The Grafenberg spot or G spot is theorized to be part of the vagina- a bean shaped area in the anterior wall that may have
special erotic significance. The G spot is believed to lie about 2.5-5 cm from the vaginal entrance and to consist of a soft mass of
tissue that swells from the size of a dime to a loonie when stimulated.
-Vaginitis is any vaginal inflammation, whether it is caused by an infection, an allergic reaction, or chemical irritation.
-The cervix is the lower end of the uterus. Its walls, like those of the vagina, produce secretions that contribute to the chemical
balance of the vagina. The opening in the middle of the cervix, or os, is normally about the width of a straw, although it expands
to permit passage of a baby from the uterus to the vagina during childbirth.
-os is the opening in the middle of the cervix.
-The Uterus or womb is the organ in which a fertilized ovum implants and develops until birth.
-Ovum is an egg cell.
-Like the vagina the uterus has 3 layers : the innermost layer, or endometrium, is richly supplied with blood vessels and glands.
Endometrial tissue is discharged through the cervix and vagina at menstruation.
-Endometrial Cancer is cancer of the endometrial lining. One of the symptoms of endometrial cancer is abnormal uterine
staining or bleeding, especially after menopause. The most common treatment is surgery.
-Hysterectomy may be performed when women develop cancer of the uterus, ovaries, or cervix or have other diseases that cause
pain or excessive uterine bleeding. A complete hysterectomy involves surgical removal of the ovaries, fallopian tubes, cervix,
and uterus.
-The Fallopian Tubes are two uterine tubes which are about 10 cm in length and extend from the upper end of the uterus towards
the ovaries. Ova pass through the fallopian tubes on their way to the uterus.
-In an ectopic pregnancy, the fertilized ovum implants outside the uterus, most often in the fallopian tube where fertilization
occurred. Ectopic pregnancies can eventually burst fallopian tubes, causing hemorrhaging and death.
-The Ovaries , the two ovaries are almond-shaped organs each about 4 cm long. They lie on either side of the uterus, to which
they are attached by ovarian ligaments. The ovaries produce ova and the female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone.
Estrogen is a generic term for several hormones that promote the changes of puberty and regulate the menstrual cycle.
Progesterone too has multiple functions, including regulating the menstrual cycle and preparing the uterus for pregnancy by
stimulating the development of the endometrium.
-The Pelvic examination, the physician first examines the woman externally for irritations, swellings, abnormal vaginal
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