FRHD 2100 Chapter Notes - Chapter 15: Coprophilia, Antiandrogen, Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor

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Week 11
Chapter 15: Sexual Variations – page #409-433:
Normal vs. Deviant Sexual Behaviour:
One approach to defining normality vs. deviance is statistical something that falls outside a
statistical norm can be considered abnormal
A sexual behaviour that is unusual is, by statistical definition, abnormal and deviant
A second approach to assessing whether a behaviour is normal is to determine how closely it
adheres to the accepted norms in society
Societal standards for abnormality and deviance can change over time; societal standards for
sexuality can also vary considerably between cultures
A third approach to determining whether a sexual behaviour is normal focuses on harm for
the individual(s) involved, for others, and for society a sexual behaviour is considered
abnormal if it causes stress, anxiety, or unhappiness for the individual who engages in it, or if
its non-consensual, or it harms someone else
Because of the confusing array of meanings for “deviant” and “abnormal”, we prefer to speak
about unusual patterns of sexual arousal or behaviour as atypical variations in sexual
behaviour, rather than as sexual deviations
The Paraphilias:
Paraphilia a diagnostic category used by the American Psychiatric Association to describe
an atypical pattern of sexual arousal or behaviour that becomes problematic in the eyes of
the individual or of society. Examples include fetishism and exhibitionism. The urges are
recurrent, and either acted on or distressing to the individual who experiences them
A major factor in delineating paraphilic disorders is that they “involve sex without the
possibility of a consensual, mutually reciprocal relationship”
Paraphilias involve sexual arousal in response to unusual stimuli such as children or other
non-consenting individuals, nonhuman objects, or pain or humiliation
The psychiatric diagnosis of paraphilia requite that the person act on the urges in socially
unacceptable or harmful ways, or be distinctly distressed by them
People with paraphilias tend to experience their urges as uncontrollable, just as drug addicts
and compulsive gamblers feel helpless to avert their irresistible urges
The person with a paraphilia typically replays the paraphilic act in sexual fantasies to
stimulate arousal during masturbation or sexual relations
Some parahilia are generally harmless and victimless
Sexual preferences for particular types of people and activities are strongly influenced by
cultural values
Paraphilias are based on political values about what’s considered acceptable behaviour
Unusual sexual interests aren’t signs of pathology, but variations on the continuum of sexual
The concept of sexual-interest disorder (SID) should be substituted for paraphilia behaviour
is by itself not an indication of pathology, rather, the key issue is whether the behaviour
causes distress or dysfunction for the individual
Therapists shouldn’t always work toward eliminating particular sexual interests, but should
offer clients the option of learning how to express these interests in healthier ways
Some parahilic behaviours, such as exposing oneself in public or enticing children into sexual
relations, do have victims, and may cause severe physical or psychological harm
Sexual sadism, in which sexual arousal is connected to hurting or humiliating another person,
can be very harmful when it’s forced upon a non-consenting person
Paraphilias are more common among men than women
Fetishism a paraphilia in which an inanimate object, such as an article of clothing or items
made of rubber, leather, or silk, elicits sexual arousal
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Week 11
The fetishist may act on the urges to engage in fetishistic behaviour, such as masturbating
while stroking or fantasizing about an object, or he may be distressed about such urges or
fantasies, and not act on them
Partialism a fetishism-related paraphilia in which sexual arousal is exaggeratedly
associated with a particular body part, such as feet, breasts, or buttocks
Fetishistic practices are nearly always private, involving masturbation, or are incorporated
into intercourse with willing partners
Transvestism a paraphilia in which a person repeatedly cross-dresses to achieve sexual
arousal or gratification, or is troubled by persistent, recurring urges to cross-dress
Transvestites are sexually gratified by cross-dressing and masturbating or by cross-dressing
and having sex with others
They may also find it gratifying to masturbate while fantasizing about cross-dressing
Many transvestites have masculine gender identities, and don’t seek to change their
anatomic sex
Transsexuals on the other hand, usually cross-dress because they’re uncomfortable with the
attire associated with their anatomic sex, and truly wish to be members of the other sex
Evidence of hormonal and neurological abnormalities in transvestism is mixed findings
show that transvestism was associated with separation from parents, same-sex sexual
experiences, use of pornography, high rates of masturbation, and parahilias namely, sexual
masochism, exhibitionism, and voyeurism
Some men cross-dress for reasons other than sexual arousal, and so aren’t true transvestites
Transvestic behaviours can range from wearing a single female garment when alone to
sporting a dress, wig, makeup, and feminine mannerisms at a transvestite club
Some transvestites become sexually aroused by masquerading as women and attracting the
interest of unsuspecting males
The great majority of transvesties don’t engage in antisocial or illegal behaviour most
practice their sexual predilections in private, and would be horrified to be discovered by
associated while dressed in female attire
Exhibitionism a paraphilia characterized by persistent, powerful urges and sexual fantasies
that involve exposing one’s genitals to unsuspecting strangers. The exhibitionist achieves
sexual arousal or gratification from this behaviour
They either act on urges or find them disturbing
They’re most always male, although there are some female exhibitionists
The typical exhibitionist is thought to be young, lonely or in an unhappy male-female
relationship, and sexually repressed
An exhibitionist may claim that sex with his regular partner is reasonably satisfactory, but that
he also experiences the compulsion to expose himself to strangers
They typically have difficulties relating to women and are unable to establish meaningful
heterosexual relationships
Exhibitionism usually begins before age 18 the urge to “flash”, if not the actual act, usually
begins in early adolescence (generally between 13-16)
The frequency of exhibitionism declines markedly after age 40
Victims may feel violated, and may be bothered by recurrent images or nightmares and may
also develop fears of venturing out on their own
Exhibitionists who are socially shy or inadequate may be using exhibitionism as a substitute
for the intimate relationships they can’t develop
The typical exhibitionists drives up to or walks in front of a stranger and exposes his penis
After a victim registers fear, disgust, confusion, or surprise, an exhibitionist typically covers
himself and flees
He usually masturbates, either while exposing himself or shortly afterward while thinking
about the act and the victim’s response
Sometimes a couple will engage in public exhibitionism
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Obscene Phone Calling (Telephone Scatologia):
Telephone scatologia a paraphilia characterized by the making of obscene telephone calls
People practicing chat scatologia are sexually aroused by sending obscene emails, instant
messages, and chat-room messages
These behaviours are sometimes considered a form of exhibitionism
Women who are charged with such offences are generally motivated by rage for some actual
or fantasized rejection, rather than the desire for sexual arousal
Male obscene phone callers are generally motivated by a desire for sexual excitement, and
usually choose their victims randomly from the phone book or by chance dialing they
typically masturbate during or shortly after the phone calls
Most obscene telephone callers also engage in other paraphilic acts, especially voyeurism
and exhibitionism
The typical obscene phone caller is a socially inadequate heterosexual male who has
difficulty forming intimate relationships with women
The relative safety and anonymity of the telephone may shield him from the risk of rejection
Reactions of shock or fright from his victims may fill him with the feelings of power and control
that are lacking in life, especially in his relationships with women
Obscene phone calls are illegal, but it’s been difficult for authorities to track down the
Voyeurism – a paraphilia characterized by strong, repetitive urges and sexual fantasies
related to observing unsuspecting strangers who are naked, disrobing, or engaged in sexual
The voyeur becomes sexually aroused by the act of watching, and typically doesn’t seek
sexual relations with the person he observes
Voyeurism is more common among males than females and it usually begins before age 15
The voyeur may masturbate while peeping, or afterward while replaying the incident in his
imagination or engaging in voyeuristic fantasies
It’s perfectly normal for men and women to be sexually stimulated by the sight of other people
who are nude, undressing, or engaged in sexual activity, but voyeurism is characterized by
urges to spy on unsuspecting strangers
Although most voyeurs are nonviolent, some commit violent crimes such as assault and rape
Voyeurs who break into and enter homes or buildings, or who tap at windows to gain the
attention of victims, are among the most dangerous
Sexual Masochism:
As long as it occurs with mutual consent, it’s considered normal to enjoy some mild forms of
pain during sexual activity
Love bites, hair pulls, and minor scratches are examples that fall within normal limits
Sexual masochist a person who becomes sexually aroused by experiencing pain or
humiliation inflicted by a sexual partner
A sexual masochist may act on or be distressed by persistent urges and sexual fantasies
involving the desire to be bound, flogged, humiliated, or made to suffer in some way in order
to achieve sexual excitement
Sexual masochism – a paraphilia characterized by the desire or need for main or humiliation
to enhance sexual arousal and attain gratification
It’s the most common paraphilia among women
Sexual masochists may derive pleasure from various types of punishing experiences,
including being restrained, spanked, whipped, or made to perform humiliating acts, such as
walking around on all fours and licking the boots or shoes of the partner, or being subjected
to vulgar insults
o Bondage ritual restraint (e.g., by shackles) practiced by many sexual
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