FRHD 2100 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Secondary Sex Characteristic, Umbilical Cord, Allosome

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Gender Issues: chapter 5
Gender Issues: chapter 5
The information contained in this chapter and these notes is an overview of some
The information contained in this chapter and these notes is an overview of some
of the concepts related to Gender Identity and Gender Roles. It is not
of the concepts related to Gender Identity and Gender Roles. It is not
intended to be comprehensive
intended to be comprehensive.
.
Consider the following quote. What is your reaction when you read the following
Consider the following quote. What is your reaction when you read the following:
“I was taught early on what appropriate gender behaviour was. I remember
“I was taught early on what appropriate gender behaviour was. I remember
thinking how unfair it was to do weekly cleaning chores while all my brother
thinking how unfair it was to do weekly cleaning chores while all my brother
had to do was take out the garbage. When I asked my mom why, she said,
had to do was take out the garbage. When I asked my mom why, she said,
“Because he is a boy and that is man’s work, and you are a girl and you do
“Because he is a boy and that is man’s work, and you are a girl and you do
woman’s work”.
woman’s work”.
Definitions
Definitions
SEX: biological maleness and femaleness
SEX: biological maleness and femaleness
GENDER: The psychological and socio-cultural characteristics associated with
GENDER: The psychological and socio-cultural characteristics associated with
our sex.
our sex.
GENDER ASSUMPTION; Assumption about how people are likely to behave
GENDER ASSUMPTION; Assumption about how people are likely to behave
based on their maleness or femaleness.
based on their maleness or femaleness.
GENDER IDENTITY: How one psychologically perceives oneself as either male
GENDER IDENTITY: How one psychologically perceives oneself as either male
or female.
or female.
GENDER ROLE; A collection of attitudes and behaviours that are considered
GENDER ROLE; A collection of attitudes and behaviours that are considered
normal and appropriate in a specific culture for people of a particular sex.
normal and appropriate in a specific culture for people of a particular sex.
Masculine/Feminine
Masculine/Feminine
Terms used to attribute behaviours to male and female
Terms used to attribute behaviours to male and female
Notions of masculine and feminine are dependent on the era which they
Notions of masculine and feminine are dependent on the era which they
occurred.
occurred.
1950’s not ok for males to change diapers as considered to be female duty
1950’s not ok for males to change diapers as considered to be female duty
Mowing lawn considered to be male duty
Mowing lawn considered to be male duty
How Much Do You Know About Gender? Consider the following:
How Much Do You Know About Gender? Consider the following:
The term “gender” is generally used to refer to the social aspects of one’s
The term “gender” is generally used to refer to the social aspects of one’s
biological sex.
biological sex.
A few behavioural characteristics in men and women may be different due to
A few behavioural characteristics in men and women may be different due to
biological factors. Still, the overwhelming majority of gender behaviours are
biological factors. Still, the overwhelming majority of gender behaviours are
socially determined.
socially determined.
Practically the only biological determined behavioural difference between men
Practically the only biological determined behavioural difference between men
and women for which there is overwhelming evidence is that males tend to be
and women for which there is overwhelming evidence is that males tend to be
more aggressive than women, a trait that is evident even in small children.
more aggressive than women, a trait that is evident even in small children.
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Even though male aggression may have biological roots, culture can overcome it.
Even though male aggression may have biological roots, culture can overcome it.
In the
In the Tchambuli tribe
Tchambuli tribe, described by Margaret Mead, the women take a more
, described by Margaret Mead, the women take a more
aggressive role than the men.
aggressive role than the men.
Though all societies recognize at least two sexes, some societies treat certain
Though all societies recognize at least two sexes, some societies treat certain
individuals as members of a third gender category.
individuals as members of a third gender category.
Transsexuals believe they are members of the gender opposite their biological
Transsexuals believe they are members of the gender opposite their biological
ones; for example, a male transsexual may feel he is a woman “trapped” in a
ones; for example, a male transsexual may feel he is a woman “trapped” in a
man’s body and may undergo sex reassignment surgery to bring his body into
man’s body and may undergo sex reassignment surgery to bring his body into
conformity with his mind. Another rare case is the biologically asexual person
conformity with his mind. Another rare case is the biologically asexual person
who is born with a total absence of internal or external sexual organs,
who is born with a total absence of internal or external sexual organs,
therefore having no sexual hormones and no gender.
therefore having no sexual hormones and no gender.
Masculine and feminine traits appear in both men and women.
Masculine and feminine traits appear in both men and women.
Research tools, such as Bem’s Sex Role Inventory, that measure masculine and
Research tools, such as Bem’s Sex Role Inventory, that measure masculine and
feminine traits, find that most people have a combination of traits. Some
feminine traits, find that most people have a combination of traits. Some
people measure high in both masculine and feminine traits, and the people are
people measure high in both masculine and feminine traits, and the people are
considered androgynous.
considered androgynous.
Genetic Development
Genetic Development
Prenatal Development
Prenatal Development
Complex organisms reproduce through sexual reproduction
Complex organisms reproduce through sexual reproduction
Two parents each donate a gamete or germ cell, which combine to create a new
Two parents each donate a gamete or germ cell, which combine to create a new
organism
organism
The germ cells from the sperm and ovum each contains half of the new person’s
The germ cells from the sperm and ovum each contains half of the new person’s
genes
genes
The germ cells direct the development of the genitals and reproductive organs
The germ cells direct the development of the genitals and reproductive organs
The biological clock what triggers puberty, female menopause and male
The biological clock what triggers puberty, female menopause and male
andropause is set.
andropause is set.
Most cells in the human body contain 46 chromosomes arranged in 23 pairs.
Most cells in the human body contain 46 chromosomes arranged in 23 pairs.
Two sex chromosomes are made up of X or Y chromosomes are donated by a
Two sex chromosomes are made up of X or Y chromosomes are donated by a
man’s sperm.
man’s sperm.
If the male contributes an X chromosome, the child will be female (XX = female)
If the male contributes an X chromosome, the child will be female (XX = female)
If the male contributes a Y chromosome, the child will be male (XY = male)
If the male contributes a Y chromosome, the child will be male (XY = male)
Fertilization
Fertilization
A sperm and egg each containing 23 chromosomes join to produce a zygote
A sperm and egg each containing 23 chromosomes join to produce a zygote
containing 46 chromosomes
containing 46 chromosomes
The zygote can now undergo mitosis (cell division)
The zygote can now undergo mitosis (cell division)
It then reproduces its 46 chromosomes
It then reproduces its 46 chromosomes
chromosomes
chromosomes
46 chromosomes are threadlike bodies made up of over 100,000 genes
46 chromosomes are threadlike bodies made up of over 100,000 genes
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Each gene contains DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
Each gene contains DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
DNA acts as a blueprint for how every cell in the organism will develop
DNA acts as a blueprint for how every cell in the organism will develop
Sexual Differentiation in the Womb
Sexual Differentiation in the Womb
A human embryo typically undergoes approximately nine months of gestation
A human embryo typically undergoes approximately nine months of gestation
4-6 weeks, the first tissues that become the embryo’s gonads develop
4-6 weeks, the first tissues that become the embryo’s gonads develop
Internal Organs
Internal Organs
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5th
th – 6
– 6th
th week of gestation the primitive gonads form
week of gestation the primitive gonads form
Develop into either testes or ovaries
Develop into either testes or ovaries
Primitive Duct System develop by the 10
Primitive Duct System develop by the 10th
th or 11
or 11th
th week
week
Mullerian duct (female)
Mullerian duct (female)
Wolffian duct (male)
Wolffian duct (male)
In male embryo testes begin producing Mullerian inhibiting factor (MIF) and
In male embryo testes begin producing Mullerian inhibiting factor (MIF) and
testosterone, cause Mullerian duct to disappear
testosterone, cause Mullerian duct to disappear
4 – 6 weeks – external sex organs
4 – 6 weeks – external sex organs
Male and female organs that began from the same prenatal tissue are called
Male and female organs that began from the same prenatal tissue are called
homologous
homologous
In females, hormones cause the mound of skin beneath the umbilical cord to
In females, hormones cause the mound of skin beneath the umbilical cord to
develop into the clitoris, the labia minora, the vestibule, and the labia majora
develop into the clitoris, the labia minora, the vestibule, and the labia majora
In males, androgen stimulates the skin beneath the umbilical cord to develop the
In males, androgen stimulates the skin beneath the umbilical cord to develop the
penis, the urethra and the scrotum
penis, the urethra and the scrotum
4 -6 weeks – Hormonal Development and Influences
4 -6 weeks – Hormonal Development and Influences
Endocrine glands (ie gonads), secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream to
Endocrine glands (ie gonads), secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream to
be carried to the target organs
be carried to the target organs
Ovaries produce estrogen and progesterone
Ovaries produce estrogen and progesterone
Estrogen influences the development of female sexual characteristics throughout
Estrogen influences the development of female sexual characteristics throughout
life
life
Progesterone regulates the menstrual cycle and prepares the uterus for
Progesterone regulates the menstrual cycle and prepares the uterus for
pregnancy
pregnancy
Testes produce androgen,
Testes produce androgen,
Androgen influences the development of male sexual characteristics throughout
Androgen influences the development of male sexual characteristics throughout
life
life
4 - 6 weeks – Brain Differentiation
4 - 6 weeks – Brain Differentiation
Most hormonal secretions are regulated by the brain
Most hormonal secretions are regulated by the brain
Hormones also affect the development of the brain
Hormones also affect the development of the brain
Female brains control menstruation and must signal the release of hormones in a
Female brains control menstruation and must signal the release of hormones in a
monthly cycle
monthly cycle
Male brains signal release of hormones continuously
Male brains signal release of hormones continuously
Atypical Sexual Differentiation
Atypical Sexual Differentiation
Atypical sexual differentiation may be caused by hormone or genetic irregularities
Atypical sexual differentiation may be caused by hormone or genetic irregularities
The result may be that an infant may be born with ambiguous genitals or genitals
The result may be that an infant may be born with ambiguous genitals or genitals
that do match the infant’s genetic sex
that do match the infant’s genetic sex
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