FRHD 2260 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Habituation, Object Permanence, Teratology

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Chapter 3
Explaining Behaviour: Understanding Growth and Development
Growth and Development
- growth means an increase in size, bodily porportions and alternation of
internal ststems that account for growth
- alterations include skeletal changes of ossification and calcification as the
bones become stronger and harder; muscular changes brought about my
- hormonal changes support the increase in size and bodily functioning and
changes in the central nervous system promote chemical and electrical
communications within the body
- development is somewhat dependent upon growth but the term relates more
specifically to the increasing skills of the individual and the processes that
enable the individual to adapt to lifes experiences
- irreducible needs are the childs basic and essential needs that must be met
for healthy development and consist of; need for nurturing relationships,
physical protection, experiences tailored to individual differences,
developmentally appropriate experiences, limit-setting and structure, stable
supportive communications and the need to protect the future
- the 4 developmental domains are cognitive, social, emotional and physical
- also need to utilize a holistic response which takes into account each
interacting domain of the persons development
- physical development concerns the changes in skill development of the body;
it depends on growth, including observable increases in size, proportion,
weight and head circumference
- gross motor skills involve control of the large muscles of the body that allow
sitting, crawling, walking and so on whereas fine motor skills concern the
skill development of the smaller muscles that allow for hand control and
coordination of hand and eye
- habituation involves a decline in interest in a stimulus whereas
dishabituation is the opposite; interesting to see how infants learn through
stimulating the senses
- perception depends on the functioning of the senses and the processing of
the info gaind by the senses and sent to the brain
- communication skills develop from babies efforts to have their needs met;
this is the ability to share meaning with others through language or a signing
- advocates of baby signing believe that early communication enhanced by
gesturing will expand the childs understanding by promoting neurological
connections, which confers an intellectual advantage
- language acquisition depends on the child interacting with people and
hearing language
- cognitive development concerns how the individual thinks and responds and
is a process that depends on; schemas, assimilation, accommodation,
disequilibrium and equilibrium
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