FRHD 2260 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Calcification, Ossification, Myelin

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Chapter 3: Explaining Behavior
Pg. 55-71
Definitions
-growth: increase in size of the individual; in infancy and early childhood it is typically
assessed through measurement of height/length, weight, and head circumference; often
growth can be easier to observe and measure than development
-ossification: the process of converting cartilage to bone
-calcification: the process of hardening, generally bone
-myelination: the process where myelin is laid down on the nerves of the brain; when
parts of the brain myelinate, it allows or improves the function of that area such as
movement or vision
-irreducible needs: the child’s basic and essential needs that must be met for healthy
development
-Zone of Proximal Development: behaviours that are on the edge of emergence; the
gap between the child’s actual performance when operating alone and the child’s
potential performance when assisted by more knowledgeable adults or children
Needs of Infant and Toddler Development:
-physical needs
-psychological needs
-cognitive needs
-optimal needs
Brazelton and Greenspan (2000) Irreducible Needs:
-need for ongoing nurturing relationships
-need for physical protection and safety
-need for experience tailored to individual differences
-need for developmentally appropriate experiences
-need for structure and expectations
-need for stable, supportive communications
-need to protect the future
Physical Development:
-gross motor skills (learned behaviors involving large muscles)
-fine motor skills (learned behaviours involved small muscles)
Perception and Sensory Development:
-have functioning sense but lack experience
-observe habituation (decline in interest) and dishabituation (renewal level of
interest)
Communication and Language Development:
-communication skills develop from babies’ efforts to have needs met
-learn more at a rapid pace based in the amount of talking that occurs
Cognitive Development (sensorimotor):
-schemas
-assimilation
-accommodation
-disequilibrium
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Document Summary

Growth: increase in size of the individual; in infancy and early childhood it is typically assessed through measurement of height/length, weight, and head circumference; often growth can be easier to observe and measure than development. Ossification: the process of converting cartilage to bone. Myelination: the process where myelin is laid down on the nerves of the brain; when parts of the brain myelinate, it allows or improves the function of that area such as movement or vision. Irreducible needs: the child"s basic and essential needs that must be met for healthy development. Zone of proximal development: behaviours that are on the edge of emergence; the gap between the child"s actual performance when operating alone and the child"s potential performance when assisted by more knowledgeable adults or children. Gross motor skills (learned behaviors involving large muscles) Fine motor skills (learned behaviours involved small muscles) Observe habituation (decline in interest) and dishabituation (renewal level of interest)

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