FRHD 3150 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Reinforcement

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Published on 12 Apr 2013
School
University of Guelph
Department
Family Relations and Human Development
Course
FRHD 3150
Chapter 4
When a stimulus becomes a conditioned reinforcer through deliberate association with
other reinforcers, the other reinforcers are called backup reinforcers.
can be either unconditioned reinforcersor other conditioned reinforcers
The main advantage of using tokens or other conditioned reinforcers in a behavior
modification program is that they can usually be delivered more immediately than the
backup reinforcer can.
they help to bridge delays between behavior and more powerful reinforcers.
Conditioned punishment: a stimulus that’s paired with punishment becomes punishing.
The demerit system used in the military is an example of a punishment token system.
FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CONDITIONED REINFORCEMENT
1. The Strength of Backup Reinforcers
The reinforcing power of a conditioned reinforcer depends in part on the
reinforcing power of the backup reinforcer(s) on which it is based.
2. The Variety of Backup Reinforcers
Simple conditioned reinforcer: A conditioned reinforcer that is paired with a single
backup reinforcer
Generalized conditioned reinforcer: a stimulus that is paired with more than one kind of
backup reinforcer
The reinforcing power of a conditioned reinforcer depends in part on the number of
different backup reinforcers available for it.
3. The Number of Pairings with a Backup Reinforcer
A conditioned reinforcer is likely to be stronger if it is paired with a backup
reinforcer many times.
4. Loss of Value of a Conditioned Reinforcer
For a conditioned reinforcer to remain effective, it must, at least occasionally, be
associated with a suitable backup reinforcer.
Pitfall Type 1
One misapplication is the unknown pairing of conditioned reinforcers with stimuli that
are meant to be punishing.
Pitfall Type 2
Ceasing to pair a conditioned reinforcer with a backup reinforcer can have poor results
for those who aren’t aware that it will cause a conditioned reinforcer to lose its value.
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Document Summary

When a stimulus becomes a conditioned reinforcer through deliberate association with other reinforcers, the other reinforcers are called backup reinforcers. Can be either unconditioned reinforcersor other conditioned reinforcers. The main advantage of using tokens or other conditioned reinforcers in a behavior modification program is that they can usually be delivered more immediately than the backup reinforcer can. They help to bridge delays between behavior and more powerful reinforcers. Conditioned punishment: a stimulus that"s paired with punishment becomes punishing. The demerit system used in the military is an example of a punishment token system. Factors influencing the effectiveness of conditioned reinforcement: the strength of backup reinforcers. The reinforcing power of a conditioned reinforcer depends in part on the reinforcing power of the backup reinforcer(s) on which it is based: the variety of backup reinforcers. Simple conditioned reinforcer: a conditioned reinforcer that is paired with a single backup reinforcer.

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