FRHD 3150 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Errorless Learning, Classical Conditioning

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Chapter 9
Fading: is the gradual change over successive trials of an antecedent stimulus that controls
a response so that the response occurs to a partially changed or completely new stimulus.
involved in everyday situations in which one person teaches a behavior to another
Any situation in which a stimulus exerts strong control over a response, fading can be a
useful procedure for transferring the control of that response to some other stimulus.
fading procedures are used in many learning situations in programs with persons with
developmental disabilities including autism and with very young children.
Errorless discrimination training, (errorless learning): is the use of a fading procedure
to establish a stimulus discrimination so that no errors occur.
Advantages over procedures involving trial and error.
1. errors consume valuable time.
2. if an error occurs once, it tends to occur many times, even if it’s being extinguished.
3. the nonreinforcement that occurs when errors are being extinguished often produces
emotional side effects
FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF FADING
1. The Final Desired Stimulus
2. The Starting Stimulus: A Prompt
Prompt: is a supplemental antecedent stimulus provided to increase the likelihood that a
desired behavior will occur, but that is not the final desired stimulus to control behavior.
INSTRUCTOR BEHAVIORS AS PROMPTS
Physical prompts: consist of guiding the learning through touch.
Gestural prompts: are certain motions that a teacher makes without touching the student.
Modeling prompts: occur when the correct behavior is demonstrated
Verbal prompts: are verbal hints or cues.
ENVIRONMENTAL ALTERATIONS AS PROMPTS
Environmental prompts: consist of alterations of the physical environment in a manner
that will evoke the desired behavior.
EXTRA-STIMULUS VERSUS WITHIN-STIMULUS PROMPTS
Instructor-behavior prompts and environmental prompts can be further subdivided
into extra-stimulus prompts and within- stimulus prompts.
Extra-stimulus prompt: is something that is added to the environment to make a correct
response more likely.
Within- stimulus: prompt is an alteration of the S D or the S A to make their
characteristics more noticeable and therefore easier to discriminate.
studies have indicated that within-stimulus prompt fading is more effective than extra-
stimulus prompt fading with children with developmental disabilities
Selecting several kinds of prompts that together reliably produce the desired response
will minimize errors and maximize the success
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Document Summary

Fading: is the gradual change over successive trials of an antecedent stimulus that controls a response so that the response occurs to a partially changed or completely new stimulus. Involved in everyday situations in which one person teaches a behavior to another. Any situation in which a stimulus exerts strong control over a response, fading can be a useful procedure for transferring the control of that response to some other stimulus. Fading procedures are used in many learning situations in programs with persons with developmental disabilities including autism and with very young children. Errorless discrimination training, (errorless learning): is the use of a fading procedure to establish a stimulus discrimination so that no errors occur. Factors influencing the effectiveness of fading: the final desired stimulus, the starting stimulus: a prompt. Prompt: is a supplemental antecedent stimulus provided to increase the likelihood that a desired behavior will occur, but that is not the final desired stimulus to control behavior.

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