FRHD 3150 Chapter Notes - Chapter 13: Reinforcement

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Published on 12 Apr 2013
School
University of Guelph
Department
Family Relations and Human Development
Course
FRHD 3150
Chapter 13: Establishing behaviour by escape and avoidance conditioning
ESCAPE CONDITIONING
Escape conditioning (also called negative reinforcement) states that the removal of
aversive stimuli immediately after the occurrence of a behavior will increase the likelihood
of that behavior.
reinforcement = strengthen responses.
negative indicates that the strengthening effect occurs because the response leads to the
removal of an aversive stimulus.
Escape conditioning is similar to punishment (both involve aversive stimulus) but they
differ procedurally in terms of both the antecedents and the consequences of behavior.
antecedents, the aversive stimulus used in escape conditioning must be present prior to
an escape response, whereas the aversive stimulus is not present prior to a response
that is punished.
consequences, escape conditioning removes the aversive stimulus immediately
following a response whereas punishment presents the aversive stimulus immediately
following a response.
AVOIDANCE CONDITIONING
Avoidance conditioning: is a contingency in which a behavior prevents an aversive
stimulus from occurring thereby resulting in an increase in the frequency of that behavior.
escape response removes an aversive stimulus that has already occurred while an
avoidance response prevents an aversive stimulus from occurring at all.
Escape conditioning has the disadvantage that the aversive stimulus must be present for the
desired response to occur.
escape conditioning is generally not a final contingency for maintaining behavior but is
preparatory training for avoidance conditioning.
Warning stimulus: which is a stimulus that signals a forthcoming unpleasant stimulus
Discriminated avoidance conditioning: warning signals that enables that individual to
discriminate a forthcoming aversive stimulus
Explanation of discriminated avoidance conditioning
1. the avoidance response is strengthened because it immediately terminates the
warning stimulus.
2. in some cases, the avoidance response enables a person to immediately escape from
anxious feelings.
3. in some cases, the avoidance response enables a person to immediately escape from
unpleasant thoughts.
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Document Summary

Chapter 13: establishing behaviour by escape and avoidance conditioning. Escape conditioning (also called negative reinforcement) states that the removal of aversive stimuli immediately after the occurrence of a behavior will increase the likelihood of that behavior. reinforcement = strengthen responses. Negative indicates that the strengthening effect occurs because the response leads to the removal of an aversive stimulus. Escape conditioning is similar to punishment (both involve aversive stimulus) but they differ procedurally in terms of both the antecedents and the consequences of behavior. Antecedents, the aversive stimulus used in escape conditioning must be present prior to an escape response, whereas the aversive stimulus is not present prior to a response that is punished. Consequences, escape conditioning removes the aversive stimulus immediately following a response whereas punishment presents the aversive stimulus immediately following a response. Avoidance conditioning: is a contingency in which a behavior prevents an aversive stimulus from occurring thereby resulting in an increase in the frequency of that behavior.

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